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Rex Rotary

RICOH Nashuatec

risograph riso


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581 x 224 x 302

581 x 224 x 302

581 x 224 x 302

581 x 224 x 302

CBM (M3)





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A3 roll












581 x 224 x 350

581 x 224 x 350

581 x 224 x 350

581 x 224 x 350

CBM (M3)





N.G (KG)





W.G (KG)





A4 roll












581 x 224 x 260

581 x 224 x 260

581 x 224 x 260

581 x 224 x 260

CBM (M3)





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CBM (M3)

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471 x 207 x 305






519 x 208 x 248






473 x 218 x 138







418 x 283 x 249






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418 x 283 x 249







393 x 374 x 280







China offers ,Europe ,Africa, America, Asia Edition ,Neutral packing, white packing

what is Risograph 

Risograph is a high-speed digital printing system manufactured by the Riso Kagaku
Corporation and designed mainly for high-volume photocopying and printing. Increasingly,
Risograph machines have been commonly referred to as a RISO Printer-Duplicator, due to
their common usage as a network printer as well as a stand-alone duplicator. When
printing or copying multiple quantities (generally more than 20) of the same original,
it is typically far less expensive per page than a conventional photocopier, laser
printer, or inkjet printer.

The underlying technology is very similar to a spirit duplicator. The original is
scanned through the machine and a master is created. This master is then wrapped around
a drum and coated with a thin layer of ink. The paper runs flat through the machine
while the drum rotates at high speed to create each image on the paper. This simple
technology is highly reliable compared to a standard photocopier and can achieve both
very high speeds (typically 130 pages per minute) and very low costs.

For schools, clubs, colleges, political campaigns and other short run print jobs, the
Risograph bridges the gap between a standard photocopier (which is cheaper up to about
50 copies) and a commercial printer (cheaper over about 10,000 copies).

Risographs have typically had interchangeable colour inks and drums allowing for
printing in different colours or using spot colour in one print job.

The latest Riso model, the HC 5500, uses a high speed ink-jet technology to achieve full
(4) colour at 120 pages per minute.

List of Risograph models

This is a partial list of models, specifications and consumables - a work in progress.
Note this does not exist elsewhere on-line !

what is Gestetner 

David Gestetner (March 20, 1854 Csorna - March 18, 1939 London), born in Hungary in the
village of Csorna, was the inventor of the Gestetner stencil duplicator, the first piece
of office equipment that allowed businessmen to make numerous copies of office documents
quickly and inexpensively.

At a young age Gestetner began to work at the stock market in Vienna. One of his tasks
was to make copies of the stock market activity at the end of the day by copying the
results over and over for each copy. He decided that there had to be a better method,
and his experiments eventually led him to invent the first method of reproducing
documents by use of a stencil.

The stencil method used a thin sheet of paper coated with wax (originally kite paper was
used), which was written upon with a special stylus that left a broken line through the
stencil - breaking the paper and removing the wax covering. Ink was forced through the
stencil - originally by an ink roller - and it left its impression on a white sheet of
paper below the stencil. This was repeated again and again until sufficient copies were

Until this time "short copy runs" (as opposed to long print runs) which were needed for
the conduct of a business (e.g. for the production of 10-50 copies of contracts,
agreements, letters etc.) had to be copied by hand. After they were copied, business
partners had to read each one of the copies to ensure that they were all exactly the
same. The process was time consuming and frustrating for all. The stencil copy method
meant that only one copy had to be read, as all copies were made from one stencil and
thus had to be identical.

David Gestetner eventually moved to London, England and in 1881 established the
Gestetner Cyclograph Company to produce stencils, styli, ink rollers etc. He guarded his
invention through patents. The Gestetner works opened in 1906 at Tottenham Hale, north
London, employed several thousand people until the 1970s.[1] His invention became an
overnight international success, and he soon established an international chain of
branches that sold and serviced his products. During the ensuing years he further
developed his invention, with the stencil eventually being placed on a screen wrapped
around a pair of revolving drums, onto which ink was placed. The drums were revolved and
ink, spread evenly across the surface of the screen by a pair of cloth-covered rollers,
was forced through the cuts made in the stencil and transfered onto a sheet of paper
which was fed through the duplicator and pressed by pressure rollers against the lower
drum. Each complete rotation of the screen fed and printed one sheet. After the first
typewriter was invented, a stencil was created which could be typed on, thus creating
copies similar to printed newspapers and books, instead of handwritten material.

The stencil duplicator can be looked upon as a predecessor of the internet, in that it
provided individuals with a means to produce and distribute their own uncensored and
uncontrolled ideas and distribute them in public places (near factories, churches,
government offices, parks etc.). Previously, producing mass numbers of copies required
the cooperation of owners of printing presses, which required a large amount of capital.
Owners of presses would not agree to publish opinions contrary to their own interest.

The Gestetner Company expanded quickly during the start and middle of the 20th century.
Management was passed on to David Gestetner's son, Sigmund, and from him to his sons,
David and Jonathan. Gestetner acquired other companies during the years: Nashua (later
changed to Nashuatec), Rex Rotary, Hanimex and Savin. Eventually a holding company was
set up called NRG (N=Nashuatec, R= Rex Rotary, G= Gestetner). In 1996 the international
Gestetner Company was acquired by the Ricoh company of Japan. The company was renamed
NRG Group, and markets and services Ricoh products under its three main brand names,
primarily in Europe, South Africa and the Middle East, but also through dealers
throughout the world.

The Gestetner, named for its inventor David Gestetner, is a duplicating machine.

The Gestetner brand has been owned by Ricoh since 1995.

In Europe, Gestetner Group became NRG Group which as of 1 April became Ricoh Europe.

In the US, the Gestetner brand was discontinued by its parent company, Ricoh. 

what is Ricoh 

Ricoh Company, Ltd. (株式会社リコー ,Kabushiki-gaisha Rikō?) (TYO: 7752) or Ricoh, is a
Japanese company that was established on February 6, 1936 as Riken Sensitized Paper (理
研感光紙 ,Riken Kankōshi?), a company in the RIKEN zaibatsu. It is headquartered in the
Ricoh Building in Chūō, Tokyo.[1]

Ricoh produces electronic products, primarily cameras and office equipment such as
printers, photocopiers, fax machines, and offers Software as a Service (SaaS) document
management solutions such as DocumentMall. In the late 1990s through early 2000s, the
company grew to become the largest copier manufacturer in the world. During this time,
Ricoh acquired Savin, Gestetner, Lanier, Rex-Rotary, Monroe, and Nashuatec. Although the
Monroe brand was discontinued, products continue to be marketed worldwide under the rest
of these brand names. In 2006, Ricoh acquired the European operations of Danka for $210
million. These operations continue as a stand alone business unit, under the Infotec
brand. In 2008 Ricoh signed a deal with LPGA professional Paula Creamer.

Before relocating to Chūō Ricoh was headquartered in Minato, Tokyo.[2] In 2006 Ricoh's
headquarters moved to the Ricoh Building, a 25-story building in the Ginza area in Chūō;
there the headquarters occupies the same space as its sales offices.[3]

Throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, Ricoh was the primary manufacturer of Pitney
-Bowes copiers. They have also manufactured copiers for Toshiba, fax machines for AT&T
and Omnifax, as well as a wide variety of equipment for numerous other companies
including duplicators for AB Dick.

In 2003 Ricoh purchased naming rights to the CNE Coliseum (now known as Ricoh Coliseum)
in Toronto.

In 2004 Ricoh acquired Hitachi Printing Solutions, Ltd creating a new company, Ricoh
Printing Systems, Ltd.

In 2005 Ricoh invested over £10 million to sponsor the stadium/entertainment complex
where Coventry City Football Club play. Accordingly now titled the Ricoh Arena, the
stadium bears various reminders of the company's generosity, ranging from 100 ft signs
on the roof to centimetre-long logos on match day programmes. There are also Ricoh
offices located within the building and a fully functioning showroom.

On January 25, 2007, Ricoh announced purchase of IBM Printing Systems Division for $725
million and investment in 3-year joint venture to form new Ricoh subsidiary, InfoPrint
Solutions Company, with 51% share.

On August 27, 2008, Ricoh announced its intentions of acquiring IKON Office Solutions
for $1.6 billion and on November 1, 2008, Ricoh completed the acquisition.

Integration with NRG
In November 2006, Ricoh announced the integration of the head office of Ricoh Europe B.V
(REBV) in Amstelveen, The Netherlands, with NRG's European HQ in London, United Kingdom.
This was completed in April 1st, with the former NRG HQ in London becoming the Strategic
HQ and the former REBV HQ in Amstelveen becoming the operational HQ. This mirrors a
similar process which took place in the US with Lanier and Ricoh USA

The integration of the European HQ is the first step in integrating each country
organisation in Europe. A single country organisation was created in Austria on July 1st
2007, the UK integration is currently in process and the integration has also begun in
Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain.

what is  Riso

Riso Kagaku Corporation (TYO: 6413), the inventor and world leader in digital duplicating technology, is the inventor, manufacturer, and distributor of the RISO Printer-Duplicator, a.k.a. Risograph.

Established in Tokyo, Japan, Riso Kagaku is now a billion dollar company distributing product in over 150 countries. The Company is listed over the counter in Japan. RISO Kagaku is also committed to excellence as a corporate citizen, maintaining a foundation that donates equipment around the world primarily to educational institutions.

In Japanese, the word 'Riso' means 'ideal' and the word 'Kagaku' means 'science.' Thus, as its name implies, the company's utilizes a science to obtain a realization of ideals. Noboru Hayama, the company's founder, established a mimeograph printing company in 1946. Over the next few years, Mr. Hayama expanded his company to the area of manufactured emulsion inks, stencil masters, and other duplicating products.

what is Nashuatec

Nashuatec is one of the main brands used by parent company Ricoh to sell office equipment within Europe. It is particularly strong in Germany and the Netherlands where it has the biggest share.

Along with Rex Rotary and Gestetner, it was one of the three brands of the NRG Group (ie Nashuatec, Rex Rotary and Gestetner). NRG Group has now been merged into Ricoh Europe as of 1 April 2007.

what is Duplo

One man's dream...

Duplo, manufacturer of quality paper handling equipment since 1951, began as the dream of one man ~ Mr. Juko Shima. This dream became a reality when Mr. Shima started a company that produced the first spirit duplicator. With that dream, he created an international Duplo empire penetrating the American, European, and Asian-Pacific markets. Two manufacturing facilities in Japan stand at the heart of continually and successfully producing innovative products. In 1979, Duplo USA Corporation emerged in the United States to serve the North, Central, and South American regions including Guam and the Caribbean Islands to name a few. In 1998, Duplo USA further expanded its national existence to serve increasing customers with its second world-class facility in Suwanee, GA.

Leading the way...

From duplicating to finishing systems, Duplo has been synonymous with being the only manufacturer dedicated to the production of a complete line of on-demand printing and finishing equipment. Duplo is attributed as the leader in providing innovative collating, bookletmaking, perfect binding, trimming, folding, cutting, printing/duplicating, bursting, and creasing solutions in the print marketplace. In response to the digital printing needs of the print-on-demand market, Duplo delivers a rewarding range of automated in-line, near-line, and off-line finishing solutions. Our continual success to maintain such partnerships with leading digital printer manufacturers such as Hewlett Packard, IBM, Océ, and Xerox, lies in the hands of our comprehensive distribution channel. Above the standard, Duplo continues to foresee and meet the rapid changes in print technology.

Our mission...

Duplo consistently pledges to develop and provide the finest, technologically advanced paper handling equipment by offering economic satisfaction without compromising performance and quality. Duplo strives to preserve its eminent reputation by providing exceptional customer satisfaction in all of its products and endeavors. 


what is Epson

Seiko Epson Corporation (セイコーエプソン株式会社 ,Seikō Epuson Kabushiki-gaisha?), or Epson, is a Japanese company and one of the world's largest manufacturers of inkjet, dot matrix and laser printers, scanners, desktop computers, business, multimedia and home theatre projectors, large home theatre televisions, robots and industrial automation equipment, point of sale docket printers and cash registers, laptops, integrated circuits, LCD components and other associated electronic components. Traditionally, the company has been manufacturing Seiko timepieces since its foundation and is one of three core companies of the Seiko Group. Based in Nagano prefecture, Japan, the company has numerous subsidiaries worldwide. Net sales over 2006/2007 amounted to ¥1.416 trillion. The company is headquartered in Suwa, Nagano Prefecture.


Daiwa Kogyo, Ltd. was founded in 1942 by Hisao Yamazaki in Suwa, Nagano. The company was backed by an investment from the Hattori family (founder of the Seiko Group) and began as a manufacturer of watch parts. It started operation in a 2,500-square-foot (230 m2) renovated miso storehouse with 22 employees. In 1943 Daini Seikosha (currently Seiko Instruments) established a factory in Suwa for manufacturing Seiko watches with Daiwa Kogyo. In 1959 the Suwa Factory of Daini Seikosha was split off and merged with Daiwa Kogyo to form Suwa Seikosha Co., Ltd. The company has developed and commercialized many timepiece technologies. In particular, it developed the world's first portable quartz timer (Seiko QC-951) in 1963, the world's first quartz watch (Seiko Quartz Astron 35SQ) in 1969, the world's first automatic power generating quartz watch (Seiko Auto-Quartz) in 1988 and the Spring Drive watch movement in 1999. Manufacturing watches still constitutes one of the major businesses of Seiko Epson.[2] The watches made by the company are sold through the Seiko Watch Corporation, a subsidiary of Seiko Holdings Corporation.

In 1961 Shinshu Seiki Co., Ltd. was established as a subsidiary of Suwa Seikosha to supply precision parts for Seiko watches. When the Seiko Group was selected to be the official time keeper for the Tokyo Olympic games in 1964, a printing timer was required to time events, and Shinshu Seiki started development of an electronic printer. In September 1968, Shinshu Seiki launched the world's first miniprinter, the EP-101 (EP stands for Electronic Printer,) which was soon incorporated into many calculators. In June 1975, the name Epson was coined after the next generation of the EP-101 was released to the public ("Son of EP-101" became "Son of EP" which in turn became "Epson"). So in effect, the company's new name meant "son of electronic printer." In April of the same year Epson America Inc. was established to sell printers for Shinshu Seiki Co.

Epson MX-80 dot matrix printerIn June 1978, the TX-80 eighty-column dot-matrix printer was released to the market, and was mainly used as a system printer for the Commodore PET Computer. After two years of further development, an improved model, the MX-80, was launched in October 1980. This was soon the best selling printer in the United States.

In November 1981 Epson introduced the world's first true laptop that was ultimately portable at 3.5 lb (1.6 kg), the Epson HX-20 which featured a full-size keyboard, Two Hitachi 6301 CPU's running @ 0.614 MHz, an LCD screen (20 X 4 text), dot-matrix printer, storage device, RS232/Serial Port, 16k ram (32k max), built-in rechargeable batteries. Microsoft BASIC was pre-loaded in the ROM, unit was carried with its own carrying case.

In July 1982, Shinshu Seiki officially named itself the Epson Corporation and launched the world's first handheld computer, the HX-20 (HC-20), and in May 1983 the world's first portable color LCD TV was developed and launched by the company.

In November 1985, the Suwa Seikosha Co., Ltd. and the Epson Corporation merged to form the Seiko Epson Corporation.

The company developed the Micro Piezo inkjet technology, which uses a piezoelectric crystal in each nozzle and does not heat the ink at the print head to project the ink onto the page, and released Epson MJ-500 inkjet printer (Epson Stylus 800) in March 1993. Shortly after, in 1994, Epson released the first high resolution color inkjet printer (considering 720x720 dpi high resolution), the Epson Stylus Color (P860A). This printer also utilized the Micro Piezo head technology.

In 1994 Epson started outsourcing sales reps to help sell their products in retail stores in the United States. In 1994 Epson started the Epson Weekend Warrior sales program. The purpose of the program was to help improve sales, improve retail sales reps' knowledge of Epson products and to address Epson customer service in a retail environment. Reps were assigned weekend shifts typically around 12-20 hours a weekend. Epson started the Weekend Warrior program with TMG Marketing (now Mosaic Sales Solutions), later with Keystone Marketing Inc, then to Mosaic and now with Campaigners INC. The Mosaic contract expired with Epson on June 24, 2007 and Epson is now represented by Campaigners Inc. Actually, their sales reps were not outsourced but rather Epson hired "rack jobbers" to ensure their retail customers displayed product properly. This freed up their regular sales force to concentrate on profitable sales solutions to VAR's and system integrators, leaving "retail" to reps who didn't require sales skills.

In June 2003, the company became public following their listing on the 1st section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TYO: 6724). As of 2007, the Hattori family (founder of Seiko Holdings, Seiko Instruments and Seiko Epson) and its related individuals and companies are still major shareholders of Seiko Epson and have the power.[3] Although the three companies in the Seiko Group have some common shareholders including the key members of the Hattori family, they are not affiliated. They are managed and operated completely independently. Epson has established its own brand image and rarely uses "Seiko."

In 2004 Epson introduced their digital rangefinder camera, the Epson R-D1, which takes Leica M mount lenses and Leica screw mount lenses with an adapter ring. This camera is the first digital rangefinder on the market. Because its sensor is smaller than the standard 35 mm film frame for which the lenses it takes are designed, lenses mounted on the R-D1 have the field of view of a lens 1.53 times as long as their stated focal length would have on a standard 35 mm camera. As of 2006 the R-D1 has been replaced by the R-D1s. The R-D1s is less expensive but its hardware is identical. Epson has released a firmware patch to bring the R-D1 up to the full functionality of its successor - the first digital camera manufacturer to make such an upgrade available for free.

what is Lenovo

Lenovo Group Limited (simplified Chinese: 联想集团有限公司; traditional Chinese: 聯想集團有限公司; pinyin: Liánxiǎng Jítuán Yǒuxiàn Gōngsī SEHK: 0992, OTCBB: LNVGY) is China's largest and the world's fourth largest personal computer manufacturer (the latter since its 2005 purchase of IBM's PC division), after Hewlett-Packard and Dell of the U.S. and Acer of Taiwan.

Lenovo produces desktops, laptops, servers, handheld computers, imaging equipment, and mobile phone handsets. Lenovo also provides information technology integration and support services, and its QDI unit offers contract manufacturing.

Its executive headquarters are located in Beijing, China and in Morrisville, North Carolina, USA. It is incorporated in Hong Kong

As of October 31, 2008, 50.4% of Lenovo is owned by public shareholders, 42.3% by Legend Holdings Limited, 6.6% by Texas Pacific Group (TPG Capital), General Atlantic LLC and Newbridge Capital and 0.7% by the directors. Because the Chinese Academy of Sciences, a Chinese government agency, owns 65% of Legend Holdings, effectively the Chinese government owns about 27% of Lenovo and is the largest shareholder.

IBM became the owner of 18.9% of Lenovo in 2005 as part of Lenovo's acquisition of the IBM personal computing division. Since then IBM has steadily lowered its shareholding in Lenovo. In July 2008 the IBM shareholding went below the 5% reporting disclosure threshold. In February 2009 the CEO Bill Amelio was replaced with Yang Yuanqing.


Lenovo was formed in 1984 as a spin-off of the Chinese Academy of Sciences new technology unit. The company initially began as a reseller, distributor and later CM for foreign brands, including IBM, entering the Chinese market. In 1990, Lenovo started to manufacture its own PCs and by 1997 became the market leader in China. In 2004, Lenovo made the strategic choice to expand abroad and bought IBM’s PC business for $1.25billion in order to facilitate this transition. The acquisition of IBM’s ThinkPad brand represented a shortcut to brand building for Lenovo and provided the firm with an unprecedented global presence and access to new technologies and designs.



2008 Olympic Torch on display in Vilnius, February 16, 2008."Lenovo" is a portmanteau of "Le-" (from Legend) and "novo", pseudo-Latin for "new". The Chinese name (simplified Chinese: 联想; traditional Chinese: 聯想; pinyin: liánxiǎng) means "association" or "connected thinking" but can also imply creativity. The name was changed from Legend because it conflicted with other trademarks registered in the West.

what is Canon

Canon Inc. (キヤノン株式会社 ,Kyanon Kabushiki Gaisha?, TYO: 7751, NYSE: CAJ) is a Japanese multinational corporation that specialises in the manufacture of imaging and optical products, including cameras, photocopiers, steppers and computer printers. Its headquarters are located in Ōta, Tokyo.


‘Precision Optical Instruments Laboratory’ is the predecessor of Canon Inc. and was founded in Tokyo in 1937 by Takeshi Mitarai, Goro Toshida, Saburo Uchida and Takeo Maeda


1930s - 60s 1934: ‘The Kwanon’[3], Japan’s first 35 mm focal plane-shutter camera, was produced in prototype form. 1940: An indirect X-ray camera, also a first for Japan, is developed. 1947: The company is renamed Canon Camera Co., Inc. 1958: A field zoom lens for television broadcasting is introduced. 1959: The world’s first camcorder with a zoom lens, ‘Relfex Zoom 8’, is introduced. 1964: ‘Canola 130’, the first Japanese made 10-key calculator is introduced. It was a substantial improvement on the design of the British Bell-Punch company that introduced the first fully electronic calculator two years earlier with the Sumlock Anita Mark 8 unit. 1969: The company’s name is changed to Canon Inc.

1970s – 00s 1971: The ‘Canon F-1’, a top-end SLR (Single Lens Reflex) camera, and FD lenses are introduced. 1976: Canon launches the world’s first camera with an embedded micro-computer, the ‘AE-1’. 1985: The world’s first Ink Jet printer using Bubble Jet technology is introduced. 1987: The 'EOS 650' autofocus SLR camera is introduced and the Canon Foundation is established. 1988: Canon introduces 'Kyosei philosophy'. 1992: The ‘EOS-5’, the first-ever camera with eye-controlled autofocus is launched. 1995: The IXUS, a pocket-sized camera with the Advanced Photo System, is introduced. 1995: introduced the first commercially available SLR lens with internal image stabilization, the Canon EF75-300mm f/4-5.6 IS USM. 1997: Canon enters the digital video camcorder market. 2002: Mr Fujio Mitarai, President and CEO of Canon Inc., is named one of the world’s top 25 managers by magazine BusinessWeek. 2003: The world’s first portable digital X-ray system is used to reconstruct the face of an Egyptian mummy believed to be Queen Nefertiti. 2004: The XEED SX50 LCD projector is introduced. 2005: Canon’s first high-definition video camcorder is introduced. 2007: Canon Europe’s 50th anniversary.

Today, the company produces digital compact and SLR cameras, printers and analog and digital copiers for the office, including its line of imageRUNNER and imagePRESS digital multifunctional devices.

In 2008 Canon was awarded over 2000 patents in the U.S.; it regularly places in the top five in total patents for the year.


Origins of company name
The original Digital IXUSThe name Canon began in 1934 with a prototype for Japan’s first-ever 35 mm camera with a focal plane shutter. It was named 'Kwanon'[4] by Goro Yoshida after the Buddhist deity Guan Yin.


Canon is a manufacturer of business and consumer imaging products which includes printers, scanners, binoculars, compact digital cameras, film and digital SLR cameras, and lenses.

The Business Solutions division offers print and document solutions for small and medium businesses, large corporations and governments. These include multi-functional printers, black and white and color office printers, large format printers, scanners, black and white and color production printers, as well as software to support these products.

Lesser known Canon products include medical, optical and broadcast products, including ophthalmic and x-ray devices, broadcast lenses, semiconductors, digital microfilm scanners, and Handy Terminal Solutions.

 Laser Printers
For many years, Canon were the principal makers of the print-engines found in industry-standard laser printers. The first models of Apple LaserWriter, and the equivalent products made by HP, used the Canon LBP-CX engine. The next models (LaserWriter II series, LaserJet II series) used the Canon LBP-SX engine. Later models used the Canon LBP-LX, LBP-EX, LBP-PX engines and many other Canon print engines.

Between printer models based on the same Canon print engine, many parts (such as toner cartridges, fuser units, roller assemblies) are interchangeable.


Company structure
Canon has regional headquarters in the Americas, Europe, Middle East, Africa, Japan, Asia and Ocenia. Canon in Europe is split into Canon Europa NV (based in the Netherlands) and Canon Europe Ltd (based in London). Both make up the European headquarters for Canon.

what is HP
William (Bill) Hewlett and David (Dave) Packard both graduated in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 1935. The company originated in a garage in nearby Palo Alto during a fellowship they had with a past professor, Frederick Terman at Stanford during the Great Depression. Terman was considered a mentor to them in forming Hewlett-Packard.

The partnership was formalized in 1939 with an investment of US$538.[9] Hewlett and Packard tossed a coin to decide whether the company they founded would be called Hewlett-Packard or Packard-Hewlett. Packard won the coin toss but named their electronics manufacturing enterprise the "Hewlett-Packard Company". HP incorporated on August 18, 1947, and went public on November 6, 1957.

Of the many projects they worked on, their very first financially successful product was a precision audio oscillator, the Model HP200A. Their innovation was the use of a small light bulb as a temperature dependent resistor in a critical portion of the circuit. This allowed them to sell the Model 200A for $54.40 when competitors were selling less stable oscillators for over $200. The Model 200 series of generators continued until at least 1972 as the 200AB, still tube-based but improved in design through the years. At 33 years, it was perhaps the longest-selling basic electronic design of all time.

One of the company's earliest customers was The Walt Disney Company, which bought eight Model 200B oscillators (at $71.50 each) for use in certifying the Fantasound surround sound systems installed in theaters for the movie Fantasia.



Early years
The company was originally rather unfocused, working on a wide range of electronic products for industry and even agriculture. Eventually they elected to focus on high-quality electronic test and measurement equipment.

From the 1940s until well into the 1990s the company concentrated on making electronic test equipment – signal generators, voltmeters, oscilloscopes, frequency counters, thermometers, time standards, wave analyzers, and many other instruments. A distinguishing feature was pushing the limits of measurement range and accuracy; many HP instruments were more sensitive, accurate, and precise than other comparable equipment.

Following the pattern set by the company's first product, the 200A, test instruments were labelled with three to five digits followed by the letter "A". Improved versions went to suffixes "B" through "E". As the product range grew wider HP started using product designators starting with a letter for accessories, supplies, software, and components.



The 1960s
HP is recognized as the symbolic founder of Silicon Valley, although it did not actively investigate semiconductor devices until a few years after the "Traitorous Eight" had abandoned William Shockley to create Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957. Hewlett-Packard's HP Associates division, established around 1960, developed semiconductor devices primarily for internal use. Instruments and calculators were some of the products using these devices.

HP partnered in the 1960s with Sony and the Yokogawa Electric companies in Japan to develop several high-quality products. The products were not a huge success, as there were high costs in building HP-looking products in Japan. HP and Yokogawa formed a joint venture (Yokogawa-Hewlett-Packard) in 1963 to market HP products in Japan. HP bought Yokogawa Electric's share of Hewlett-Packard Japan in 1999.

HP spun off a small company, Dynec, to specialize in digital equipment. The name was picked so that the HP logo "hp" could be turned upside down to be the logo "dy" of the new company. Eventually Dynec changed to Dymec, then was folded back into HP. HP experimented with using Digital Equipment Corporation minicomputers with its instruments. But after deciding that it would be easier to buy another small design team than deal with DEC, HP entered the computer market in 1966 with the HP 2100 / HP 1000 series of minicomputers. These had a simple accumulator-based design, with registers arranged somewhat similarly to the Intel x86 architecture still used today. The series was produced for 20 years, in spite of several attempts to replace it, and was a forerunner of the HP 9800 and HP 250 series of desktop and business computers.


The 1970s
The HP 3000 was an advanced stack-based design for a business computing server, later redesigned with RISC technology, that has only recently been retired from the market. The HP 2640 series of smart and intelligent terminals introduced forms-based interfaces to ASCII terminals, and also introduced screen labeled function keys, now commonly used on gas pumps and bank ATMs. Although scoffed at in the formative days of computing, HP would eventually surpass even IBM as the world's largest technology vendor in sales.

HP is identified by Wired magazine as the producer of the world's first marketed, mass-produced personal computer, the Hewlett-Packard 9100A, introduced in 1968.[12] HP called it a desktop calculator because, as Bill Hewlett said, "If we had called it a computer, it would have been rejected by our customers' computer gurus because it didn't look like an IBM. We therefore decided to call it a calculator, and all such nonsense disappeared." An engineering triumph at the time, the logic circuit was produced without any integrated circuits; the assembly of the CPU having been entirely executed in discrete components. With CRT display, magnetic-card storage, and printer, the price was around $5000. The machine's keyboard was a cross between that of a scientific calculator and an adding machine. There was no alphabetical keyboard.

Steve Wozniak, co-founder of Apple, originally designed the Apple I computer while working at HP and offered it to them under their right of first refusal to his work, but they did not take it up as the company wanted to stay in scientific, business, and industrial markets.

The company earned global respect for a variety of products. They introduced the world's first handheld scientific electronic calculator in 1972 (the HP-35), the first handheld programmable in 1974 (the HP-65), the first alphanumeric, programmable, expandable in 1979 (the HP-41C), and the first symbolic and graphing calculator, the HP-28C. Like their scientific and business calculators, their oscilloscopes, logic analyzers, and other measurement instruments have a reputation for sturdiness and usability (the latter products are now part of spin-off Agilent's product line). The company's design philosophy in this period was summarized as "design for the guy at the next bench".

The 98x5 series of technical desktop computers started in 1975 with the 9815, and the cheaper 80 series, again of technical computers, started in 1979 with the 85[1]. These machines used a version of the BASIC programming language which was available immediately after they were switched on, and used a proprietary magnetic tape for storage. HP computers were similar in capabilities to the much later IBM Personal Computer, although the limitations of available technology forced prices to be high.


The 1980s
In 1984, HP introduced both inkjet and laser printers for the desktop. Along with its scanner product line, these have later been developed into successful multifunction products, the most significant being single-unit printer/scanner/copier/fax machines. The print mechanisms in HP's tremendously popular LaserJet line of laser printers depend almost entirely on Canon's components (print engines), which in turn use technology developed by Xerox. HP develops the hardware, firmware, and software that convert data into dots for the mechanism to print.

In 1987, the Palo Alto garage where Hewlett and Packard started their business was designated as a California State historical landmark.

The 1990s
In the 1990s, HP expanded their computer product line, which initially had been targeted at university, research, and business customers, to reach consumers.

HP also grew through acquisitions, buying Apollo Computer in 1989 and Convex Computer in 1995.

Later in the decade HP opened as an independent subsidiary to sell online, direct to consumers; in 2005 the store was renamed "HP Home & Home Office Store."

In 1999, all of the businesses not related to computers, storage, and imaging were spun off from HP to form Agilent. Agilent's spin-off was the largest initial public offering in the history of Silicon Valley. The spin-off created an $8 billion company with about 30,000 employees, manufacturing scientific instruments, semiconductors, optical networking devices, and electronic test equipment for telecom and wireless R&D and production.

In July 1999, HP appointed Carly Fiorina as CEO, the first female CEO of a company in the Dow Jones Industrial Average. Fiorina served as CEO during the tech downtown of the turn of the 2nd millenium. During her tenure, the market halved HP’s value commensurate with other tech companies at the time and the company incurred heavy job losses.[13] The HP Board of Directors asked Fiorina to step down in 2005, and she resigned on February 9, 2005.


2000 and beyond
Compaq merger. HP merged with Compaq in 2002. Compaq itself had bought Tandem Computers in 1997 (which had been started by ex-HP employees), and Digital Equipment Corporation in 1998. Following this strategy HP became a major player in desktops, laptops, and servers for many different markets. After the merger with Compaq, the new ticker symbol became "HPQ", a combination of the two previous symbols, "HWP" and "CPQ", to show the significance of the alliance. In 2006 hp outsourced its enterprise support to countries with lower cost workers: the Spanish support (for Spain) moved to Slovakia, the German support moved to Bulgaria, English support moved to Costa Rica, and so on.

EDS purchase. On May 13, 2008, HP and Electronic Data Systems announced  that they had signed a definitive agreement under which HP would purchase EDS. On June 30, HP announced [15] that the waiting period under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976 had expired. "The transaction still requires EDS stockholder approval and regulatory clearance from the European Commission and other non-U.S. jurisdictions and is subject to the satisfaction or waiver of the other closing conditions specified in the merger agreement." The agreement was finalized on August 26, 2008 and it was publicly announced that EDS would be re-branded "EDS an HP company."

In October 2008, Hewlett-Packard (Canada) Co. was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" by Mediacorp Canada Inc., and was featured in Maclean's newsmagazine. Later that month, Hewlett-Packard (Canada) Co. was also named one of Greater Toronto's Top Employers, which was announced by the Toronto Star newspaper.


Technology and products

HP has successful lines of printers, scanners, digital cameras, calculators, PDAs, servers, workstation computers, and computers for home and small business use computers; many of the computers came from the 2002 merger with Compaq. HP today promotes itself as supplying not just hardware and software, but also a full range of services to design, implement and support IT infrastructure.

The three business segments: Enterprise Storage and Servers (ESS), HP Services (HPS), and HP Software are structured beneath the broader Technology Solutions Group (TSG).

Imaging and Printing Group (IPG)
According to HP's 2005 U.S. SEC 10-K filing,[17] HP's Imaging and Printing Group is "the leading imaging and printing systems provider in the world for printer hardware, printing supplies and scanning devices, providing solutions across customer segments from individual consumers to small and medium businesses to large enterprises." This division is currently headed by Vyomesh Joshi.

Products and technology associated with the Imaging and Printing Group include:

Inkjet and LaserJet printers, consumables and related products
Officejet all-in-one multifunction printer/scanner/faxes
Large Format Printers
Indigo Digital Press
HP Web Jetadmin printer management software
HP Output Management suite of software, including HP Output Server
LightScribe optical recording technology that laser-etches labels on disks
HP Photosmart digital cameras and photo printers
HP SPaM Hosted within IPG, SPaM is an internal consulting group that supports all HP businesses on mission-critical strategic and operation decisions.
On December 23, 2008, HP releases iPrint Photo for iPhone a free downloadable software application that allows to print 4" x 6" photos.

Personal Systems Group (PSG)
HP's Personal Systems Group claims to be "one of the leading vendors of personal computers ("PCs") in the world based on unit volume shipped and annual revenue."

Personal Systems Group products/technology include:

Business PCs and accessories
Consumer PCs and accessories including the HP Pavilion, Compaq Presario and VoodooPC series
Workstations for Unix, Windows and Linux systems
Handheld Computing including iPAQ Pocket PC handheld computing devices (from Compaq)
Digital "Connected" Entertainment including HP MediaSmart TVs, HP MediaSmart Servers, HP MediaVaults, and DVD+RW drives. HP resold the Apple iPod until November 2005.
Home Storage Servers 

what is Lexmark

Lexmark (NYSE: LXK) is an American corporation which develops and manufactures printing and imaging solutions, including laser and inkjet printers, multifunction products, printing supplies, and services for business and individual consumers. The company is headquartered in Lexington, Kentucky.

In March of 1991, IBM divested a number of its hardware manufacturing operations to the investment firm Clayton & Dubilier, Inc. in a leveraged buyout to form Lexmark International, Inc. Lexmark became a publicly traded company in 1995.


The firm's corporate and R&D offices are located at the headquarters in Lexington, Kentucky, United States. Lexmark has offices throughout North and South America, Asia, Africa and Europe. The company has more than 13,000 employees worldwide. Lexmark is a Fortune 500 company and had $5.22 billion in revenues in 2005. In addition to manufacturing hardware under their own name, Lexmark also does third party development of printers for other major companies, such as Dell.


A Lexmark X5450Lexmark specializes in printers and printer accessories. Its current range of products includes color and monochrome laser printers, inkjet printers both of which may include scanners (including all-in-one devices and photo printers), and dot matrix printers. Lexmark was one of the first companies to release affordable wifi inkjet printers. They also offer a wide variety of laser printers for more professional printing

what is Kyocera

Kyocera Corporation (京セラ株式会社 ,Kyōsera Kabushiki-gaisha?) is a Japanese company based in Kyoto, Japan. The company was founded as Kyoto Ceramic Co., Ltd. (京都セラミツク株式会社 ,Kyōto Seramikku Kabushiki-gaisha?) in 1959 by Kazuo Inamori. It manufactures ceramics and printing-related devices, as well as a comprehensive line of imaging products. Kyocera acquired the famous Yashica Camera Company Ltd. in 1983, along with Yashica's prior licensing agreement with Carl Zeiss, and manufactured a line of high-quality film and digital cameras under the Yashica and Contax trade names. Under intense competition by other manufacturers, and hampered by limited marketing and increased production costs, Yashica and Contax failed to increase market share. Kyocera abandoned all film and digital camera production in 2005. In January 2000, Kyocera acquired photocopier manufacturer Mita Industrial to create a wholly owned subsidiary company the Kyocera Mita Corporation (headquarters in Osaka), and a month later Kyocera Corporation bought the mobile phone manufacturing operations of the American company QUALCOMM to form Kyocera Wireless Corporation.


In the 1980s, Kyocera marketed audio components, such as CD players, receivers, turntables, and cassette decks. These featured unique elements, including Kyocera ceramic-based platforms, and are sought by collectors to the present day. At one time, Kyocera owned the famous KLH brand founded by Henry Kloss, though Kloss and the original Cambridge design and engineering staff had left the company by the time of the Kyocera purchase. In 1989, Kyocera stopped production of audio components and sought a buyer for the KLH brand.

Kyocera introduced a portable LCD screen computer in 1985, the Kyotronic 85. Kyocera also produces ceramics, such as their ceramic knives.

In 2003, Kyocera Wireless Corporation started an Indian subsidiary in Bangalore, Kyocera Wireless India. KWI has tied up with several leading players for providing CDMA services in India. For 2005, Kyocera copiers and printers have received J.D. Power and Associates' highest ranking in their latest customer satisfaction survey.

Kyocera Corporation, parent and headquarters of the worldwide Kyocera Group, announced on April 1, 2008 that it had completed a merger announced with Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. (Sanyo) on January 21, 2008, in which Kyocera acquired Sanyo's global mobile phone business.

Printers, Multifunctional Products "MFPs" (print, copy, scan, fax)
Kyocera Mita Corporation manufactures a wide range of printers, MFPs, and toner cartridges which are sold throughout EMEA, Asia, and the Americas.

what is Fuji Xerox

Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd. (富士ゼロックス株式会社 ,Fuji Zerokkusu Kabushiki-gaisha?) is a joint venture partnership between the Japanese photographic firm Fuji Photo Film Co. (75%) and the American document management company Xerox (25%) to develop, produce and sell xerographic and document-related products and services in the Asia-Pacific region.

Fuji Xerox was established in 1962 as a 50:50 partnership with Rank Xerox. Rank Xerox was absorbed into Xerox Corporation in 1997.        

Originally only a distributor of Rank Xerox products, Fuji Xerox later began to research and develop its own xerographic machines and other devices, beginning with the 2200 photocopier in 1973. Today the company is responsible for the innovation and manufacture of many of the colour printing devices sold by Xerox Corporation. Its innovations include the world's first multifunction printer/copier, the "Xero Printer 100", launched in 1987.

In 1991, Fuji Xerox introduced the tag-line "The Document Company" which became incorporated into its logo in 1995. This is feature of the logo to this day, although Xerox Corporation discontinued its use in 2004.

Xerox Corporation transferred its China/Hong Kong Operations to Fuji Xerox in 2000 and Fuji Photo Film Co. raised its stake in the venture to 75% in 2001.

In 2004, the company employed 36,000 people.

Effective April 1, 2008, Fuji Xerox will start changing their logo on communication materials including its official Web site, business cards, and key signage in order of priority, covering all Fuji Xerox companies in Japan as well as the Asia-Pacific region. This is the first corporate identity change in 13 years. 

what is Xerox

Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) (name pronounced /ˈziːrɒks/) is a global document management company which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. Xerox is headquartered in Norwalk, Connecticut (moved from Stamford, Connecticut in October 2007[2]), though its largest population of employees is based in and around Rochester, New York, the area in which the company was founded.


Xerox was founded in 1906 in Rochester, New York as "The Haloid Company",[3] which originally manufactured photographic paper and equipment. The company subsequently changed its name to "Haloid Xerox" in 1958 and then simply "Xerox" in 1961.[4] The company came to prominence in 1959 with the introduction of the first plain paper photocopier using the process of xerography developed by Chester Carlson, the Xerox 914.[5] The 914 was so popular that by the end of 1961, Xerox had almost $60 million in revenue. By 1965, revenues leaped to over $500 million. Before releasing the 914, Xerox had also introduced the first xerographic printer, the "Copyflo" in 1955.

The company expanded substantially throughout the 1960s, making millionaires of some long-suffering investors who had nursed the company through the slow research and development phase of the product. In 1960, the "Wilson Center for Research and Technology" was opened in Webster, New York, a research facility for xerography. In 1961, the company changed its name to "Xerox Corporation". Xerox common stock (XRX) was listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1961 and on the Chicago Stock Exchange in 1990.

In 1963, Xerox introduced the Xerox 813, the first desktop plain-paper copier, bringing Carlson's vision of a copier that could fit on anyone's office desk into a reality. Ten years later in 1973, a color copier followed.

The laser printer was invented in 1969 by Xerox researcher Gary Starkweather by modifying a Xerox copier. This development resulted in the first commercially available laser printer, the Xerox 9700, being launched in 1977. Laser printing eventually became a multi billion dollar business for Xerox. Archie McCardell was named president of the company in 1971.[6] During his tenure, Xerox introduced its first color copier.[7] During McCardell's reign at Xerox, the company announced record revenues, earnings and profits in 1973, 1974, and 1975.[8] John Carrol became a backer, later spreading the company throughout North America.

Following these years of record profits, in 1975 Xerox resolved an anti-trust suit with the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which at the time was under the direction of Frederic M. Scherer. The Xerox consent decree resulted in the forced licensing of the company’s entire patent portfolio, mainly to Japanese competitors. This action marked the start of an activist approach to managing competition by the FTC and U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). It resulted in the forced licensing of tens of thousands of patent from some of America's leading companies, including IBM, AT&T, DuPont, Bausch & Lomb, and Eastman Kodak. Within four years of the consent decree, Xerox's share of the U.S. copier market dropped from nearly 100% to less than 14%. Between 1950 and 1980 Japanese companies consummated more than 35,000 foreign licensing agreements, mostly with U.S. companies, for free or low-cost licenses made possible by the FTC and DOJ.

In 1970, under company president Charles Peter McColough, Xerox opened the Xerox PARC (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center) research facility. The facility developed many modern computing technologies such as the mouse and the graphical user interface (GUI). From these inventions, Xerox PARC created the Xerox Alto in 1973, a small minicomputer similar to a modern workstation or personal computer. This machine can be considered the first true personal computer, given its versatile combination of a cathode-ray-type screen, mouse-type pointing device, and a QWERTY-type alphanumeric keyboard. But the Alto was never commercially sold, as Xerox itself could not see the sales potential of it. In 1979, several Apple Computer employees, including Steve Jobs, visited Xerox PARC, interested in seeing their developments. Jobs and the others saw the commercial potential of the GUI and mouse, and redirected development of the Apple Lisa to incorporate these technologies. In 1980, Steven Jobs invited several key PARC's researchers to join his company in order that they would be able to fully develop and implement their ideas.


Xerox later released a similar system to the Alto, the Xerox Star in 1981 as a workstation. It was the first commercial system to incorporate various technologies that today have become commonplace in personal computers, including a bit-mapped display, a window-based GUI, mouse, Ethernet networking, file servers, print servers and e-mail. The Xerox Star, despite its technological breakthroughs, did not sell well due to its high price, costing $16,000 per unit. A typical Xerox Star-based office would have cost $100,000.

In the mid 1980s, Apple considered buying Xerox; however, a deal was never reached. Apple instead bought rights to the Alto GUI and adapted it into to a more affordable personal computer, aimed towards the business and education markets. The Apple Macintosh was released in 1984, and was the first personal computer to popularize the GUI and mouse amongst the public.

The company was revived in the 1980s and 1990s, through improvement in quality design and realignment of its product line. Development of digital photocopiers in the 1990s and a revamp of the entire product range—essentially high-end laser printers with attached scanners which were able to be attached to computer networks—again gave Xerox a technical lead over its competitors. Xerox worked to turn its product into a service, providing a complete "document service" to companies including supply, maintenance, configuration, and user support. To reinforce this image, the company introduced a corporate signature, "The Document Company" above its main logo and introduced a red "digital X". The "digital X" symbolized the transition of documents between the paper and digital worlds.

In 2000, Xerox acquired Tektronix color printing and imaging division in Wilsonville, Oregon, for US$925 million. This led to the current Xerox Phaser line of products as well as Xerox solid ink printing technology.

In September 2004, Xerox celebrated the 45th anniversary of the Xerox 914. More than 200,000 units were made around the world between 1959 and 1976, the year production of the 914 was stopped. Today, the 914 is part of American history as an artifact in the Smithsonian Institution.

Xerox's turnaround was largely led by Anne M. Mulcahy, who was appointed president in May 2000, CEO in August 2001 and chairman in January 2002.[9] Mulcahy launched an aggressive turnaround plan that returned Xerox to full-year profitability by the end of 2002, along with decreasing debt, increasing cash, and continuing to invest in research and development.

In November, 2006 Xerox completed the Acquisition of XMPie Press Release

In October 2008, Xerox Canada Ltd. was named one of Greater Toronto's Top Employers by Mediacorp Canada Inc., which was announced by the Toronto Star newspaper.

Current products
Xerox today manufactures and sells a wide variety of office and production equipment including LCD Monitors, photo copiers, Xerox Phaser printers, multifunction printers, large-volume digital printers as well as workflow software under the brand strategy of FreeFlow. The impact of Xerox FreeFlow products on the graphic arts market and the print industry in general has grown exponentially since May 2006, largely as a result of the Xerox presence at IPEX 2006. Xerox also sells scanners and digital presses. On 29 May 2008, xerox launches XEROX iGen 4 digital press.

Xerox sells both color and black and white printers under the Xerox Phaser brand, with the color consumer model starting at US$299; the most expensive color model costs US$6,799.

Xerox also produces fax machines, professional printers, black and white copiers, and several other products.

In addition, Xerox produces many printing and office supplies such as paper, in many forms; and markets software such as DocuShare Xerox MarketPort and FlowPort, offers consulting services, ECM Digital Repository Services and printing outsourcing.


The word "xerox" is commonly used as a synonym for "photocopy" (both as a noun and a verb) in many areas; for example,"I xeroxed the document and placed it on your desk." or "Please make a xeroxed copy of the articles and hand them out a week before the exam". Though both are common, the company does not condone such uses of its trademark, and is particularly concerned about the ongoing use of Xerox as a verb as this places the trademark in danger of being declared a generic word by the courts. The company is engaged in an ongoing advertising and media campaign to convince the public that Xerox should not be used as a verb.

To this end, the company has written to publications that have used Xerox as a verb, and has also purchased print advertisements declaring that "you cannot 'xerox' a document, but you can copy it on a Xerox Brand copying machine". Xerox Corporation continues to protect its trademark diligently in most if not all trademark categories. Despite their efforts, many dictionaries continue to mention the use of "xerox" as a verb, including the Oxford English Dictionary.

In India, Parle Agro's "Kaccha Mango Bite" candy ran a tagline claiming "Kacche Aam Ka Xerox" which means "Xerox of the raw mango". The tag was later modiified to "Kacche Aam Ka Copy", which means "Copy of the Raw Mango."

In 2008, Xerox changed its logo to a red sphere with a white X with three grey stripes. The change is meant to reflect less on the photo copying duties Xerox has carried out and instead to refocus on document management and solutions across the world for companies.

what is brother

Originally founded 100 years ago in Nagoya, Japan, Brother has a rich history in Europe that stretches back 50 years. The company's first European base was established in Ireland in 1958, back when Brother made everything from sewing machines to motorbikes.

Since then, Brother has expanded into 21 European countries and focused its product range on office technology whilst continuing to expand its sewing machine range.

Over those 50 years, the company has been responsible for several important innovations, from the world's first high speed dot matrix printer in 1971 to the world's smallest self-contained mobile printer in 2004.

Manchester has been the home of Brother UK for 40 years, after taking over the Jones sewing machine factory in 1968. The factory was soon adapted to manufacture knitting machines and typewriters, starting and exciting story of UK production that continues today at our factory in Ruabon, Wales, where all our UK typewriters are still made.

If you want to know more about our history -

Brother first established in Europe 
The European Economic Community had only come into being the year before when France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxemburg signed the Treaty of Rome. Recognizing and responding to this was an extremely important step for Brother's development and growth
 Brother takes over Jones sewing machine factory in Audenshaw, Manchester 
Jones Sewing Machines was well established as Britain's premier brand, but was suffering from lack of investment and development. This acquisition allowed Brother to rapidly establish itself within the UK.
 Brother produces the world's first high speed dot-matrix printer 
This product, designed by CDCC and built in Brother factories, led to Brother's decision to diversify its product offering into office technology. This proved instrumental in Brother becoming the company it is today.
 First Brother electronic typewriter
Following the decision to diversify, Brother's electronic typewriters rapidly gained world-wide acceptance and fuelled major growth and recognition of Brother as a serious contender in office technology.

 First Brother Fax machine
The fax machine was recognized as the fundamental communication device in the office of the time. Brother developed products that were small, efficient and most of all very competitive. Fax contributed greatly to the company's ever expanding product range.

 First Brother laser printer

Laser printing was establishing as the printing technology of the moment and Brother was able to develop its own high speed products for the office market. Today, Brother is a world class producer of these products.

First Brother labelling machine

Proving that Brother has the capability for true innovation, it released new labelling technology based on an original Brother concept. This initial innovation resulted in a whole system of labelling products that produce some of the most durable labels in the world today.

 First Brother laser multifunction machine
Continuing its line of world first technologies, the company made a significant breakthrough in integrating multiple functions into one machine with its first laser multifunction printer. Based on an existing laser printer, Brother added scanning, faxing, phone and many others functions too. This became the new benchmark for Brother's competitors and spawned an entirely new product category.

 First Brother inkjet multifunction machine

Brother emulated it success with laser multifunction to inkjet technology. This resulted in many products that were smaller, quieter, more colourful, but just as functional as the laser machines.

 First Brother self-contained mobile printer
This miniaturized product was (and still is) the only one of its kind in the world to be so small yet so capable. It now forms the printing resource for many large organizations for whom mobility is essential, from the British Transport Police to Hilarys Blinds.

 First Brother RFID label printer
A true 21st century breakthrough, based on Brother's existing labeling experience, the RL-700S adds Radio Frequency Identification tags to the company's label range. This technology, normally costing thousands of pounds to implement can be realized for a fraction of the cost with Brother's latest technological development.


what is  LANIER
Driving productivity, protecting profitability

Lanier delivers document management solutions to local and national organizations in many industries. We design these solutions based on a deep understanding of each customer’s unique needs and an intense focus on measurable business outcomes. When you choose Lanier, you will see the differences immediately.

We understand your perspective. We actively solicit your feedback and use it to drive product development, service plans, and other specialized offerings.

We believe your company is unique. Every customer has a different history, market niche, philosophy, and strategic vision. That’s why Lanier employs document workflow assessment methodologies to develop a rich understanding of your specific needs — before we recommend a single component of any solution.

We know what solutions are. A solution is not just a product — it’s a problem solved. Effective solutions may include hardware, software, workflow analysis, network integration, application development, training, and technical support.

We focus on cost reduction. Many companies don’t realize document management may represent up to 15% of operating costs. So, it is crucial that new solutions minimize costs and improve productivity.

To satisfy your document needs, Lanier offers a wide range of products for individual users, small workgroups, larger offices, entire departments, and dedicated high-volume production environments. This includes color and black & white digital multifunction products, digital duplicators, color and black & white network laser printers, facsimile products and wide format products. Lanier also provides specialized document and printing solutions designed to address specific business and workflow challenges

what is Oki

Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd. (沖電気工業株式会社 ,Oki Denki Kōgyō Kabushiki-gaisha?) (TYO: 6703) is a Japanese electronics company, founded (as Meikosha, Ltd.) in January 1881 by Kibataro Oki.


Subsidiaries include Oki Data, which produces equipment such as facsimile machines and ATMs; and Oki Semiconductor, which produces microprocessors, audiovisual products, etc.

Oki Data Americas, Inc., a subsidiary of Oki Data Corporation of Japan, sells millions of printers as well as related products such as fax machines and multifunction devices.

Oki is notable for its specialist printer products in two areas. First, Oki continues to make dot-matrix printers (both 9-pin and 24-pin) capable of printing multi-part tractor-feed forms. Printers of this kind remain in use for printing instant duplicates of invoices and receipts in some retail and service industries. Second, Oki makes xerographic printers whose optical image is formed by arrays of LEDs rather than by a scanning laser. The design and construction of these printers differs somewhat from that of conventional laser-printers, in that Oki's printers have fewer moving parts, and provide a straighter paper-path than conventional designs.

what is Panasonic

Panasonic Corporation (パナソニック株式会社 ,Panasonikku Kabushiki-gaisha?) (TYO: 6752 NYSE: PC), formerly known as Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., is a multinational corporation based in Kadoma, Japan. Its main business is in electronics manufacturing and produces products under a variety of names including Panasonic and Technics.

Since its founding in 1918, it grew to become the largest Japanese electronics producer. In addition to electronics, Panasonic offers non-electronic products and services such as home renovation services. Panasonic was ranked the 59th largest company in the world in 2007 by the Forbes Global 500 and is among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders.

For 90 years since establishment, the name of the company was always topped with "松下" ("Matsushita"); before the company renamed itself on October 1, 2008, the company's name was "松下電器産業株式会社" ("Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd."), which was used since 1935

In 1927, the company founder adopted a brand name "ナショナル" ("National") for a new lamp product, knowing "national" meant "of or relating to a people, a nation."[6] In 1955, the company labeled its export audio speakers and lamps "PanaSonic", which was the first time it used its "Panasonic" brand name. The company began to use a brand name "Technics" in 1965. Multiple brandage lasted for some decades

In May 2003, the company put "Panasonic" as its global brand, and set its global brand slogan, "Panasonic ideas for life." The company began to unify its brands to "Panasonic" and, by March 2004 replaced "National" for products and outdoor signboards, except for those in Japan.

On January 10, 2008, the company announced that it would change its name to "Panasonic Corporation" (effective on October 1, 2008) and unify "National" in Japan to its global brand "Panasonic" (by March 2010)[9]. The name change was approved at a shareholders' meeting on June 26, 2008.




Panasonic was founded in 1918 by Konosuke Matsushita first selling duplex lamp sockets. In 1927, it produced a bicycle lamp, the first product it marketed under the brand name National. It operated factories in Japan and Asia through the end of World War II, producing electrical components and appliances such as light fixtures, motors, and electric irons.

After World War II, Panasonic regrouped and began to supply the post war boom in Japan with radios and appliances, as well as bicycles. Matsushita's brother-in-law, Toshio Iue founded Sanyo as a subcontractor for components after WWII. Sanyo grew to become a competitor to Panasonic.


National/Panasonic Bicycles
The production of high-quality road and touring bicycles and bicycle components composed a little-known but substantial portion of the appliance division of the National/Panasonic corporation from 1945 through the end of the 1980s. As a child, Konosuke Matsushita, founder of National/Panasonic, had been adopted into a family who owned a small bicycle shop, and was passionate about bicycles and cycling.

National and Panasonic bicycles were sold both in Japan and overseas to various retailers, who sometimes rebadged the bikes with private labels. Despite competition from other Japanese manufacturers, Matsushita enacted a corporate policy forbidding low quality in Panasonic bicycles no matter what the profit margins. When Schwinn was forced by economics to outsource bicycles built overseas, they chose the Panasonic World series, a successful model in production from 1972. As the only vendor to meet Schwinn's rigid manufacturing and production standards, Panasonic built several models for Schwinn, such as the World Traveller and the World Voyager. During the 1970s and 1980s, Panasonic produced a full range of lugged steel frame bicycles, produced in modern factories complete with robotic welding/brazing and advanced paint application equipment. Panasonic's bicycle tires had higher thread counts and thicker treads than their competition, and established a reputation for uniformity and high quality.

From 1985 on, steady increases in the value of the Japanese yen and lower cost competition from Taiwan made Panasonic bicycles less competitive in the U.S. and other markets. Panasonic began to sell rebadged bikes made in Taiwan under their name. By 1989, Panasonic division managers were reporting that bicycles brought less revenue (and less profit) per square foot of warehouse than any other product in the corporate division. Following the death of Konosuke Matsushita, Panasonic abandoned the US bicycle market at the end of September, 1989.


In 1961, Konosuke Matsushita traveled to the United States and met with American dealers. Panasonic began producing television sets for the U.S. market under the Panasonic brand name, and expanded the use of the brand to Europe in 1979.

The company used the National trademark outside of North America during the 1950s through the 1970s. It sold televisions, radios, and home appliances in some markets. The company began opening manufacturing plants around the world. It quickly developed a reputation for well-made reliable products.

The company debuted a hi-fidelity audio speaker in Japan in 1965 with the brand Technics. This line of high quality stereo components became worldwide favorites. The most famous product still made today is the SL-1200 record player, acknowledged for its high performance, precision, and durability. Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, Panasonic continued to produce high-quality specialized electronics for niche markets, such as short-wave radios, and developed a successful line of stereo receivers, CD players, and other components.

In November 1999, the Japan Times reported that Panasonic planned to develop a "next generation first aid kit" called the Electronic Health Checker. At the time, the target market was said to be elderly people, especially those living in rural areas where medical help might not be immediately available, so it was planned that the kit would include support for telemedicine. The kits were then in the testing stage, with plans for eventual overseas distribution, to include the United States.

In recent years the company has been involved with the development of high-density optical disc standards intended to eventually replace the DVD and the SD memory card.

On January 19, 2006 Panasonic announced that, starting in February, it will stop producing analog televisions (then 30% of its total TV business) to concentrate on digital TVs.

On November 3, 2008 Panasonic and Sanyo were in talks, resulting in the eventual acquisition of Sanyo. The merger is to be completed by April 2009, and will result in one mega-corporation with revenues over ¥11.2 trillion (around $110 billion). As part of what will be Japan's biggest electronics company, the Sanyo brand and most of the employees will be retained.



what is Sharp

Sharp Corporation (シャープ株式会社 ,Shāpu Kabushiki-gaisha?) (TYO: 6753, LuxSE: SRP) is a Japanese electronics manufacturer, founded in 1912. It takes its name from one of its founder's first inventions, the Ever-Sharp mechanical pencil, which was invented by Tokuji Hayakawa (早川 徳次) in 1915. Since then it has developed into one of the leading electronics companies in the world. As a semiconductor maker, Sharp is among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders and among the Top 100 R&D Spenders in a list published by IEEE Spectrum magazine. It gained public awareness in the United Kingdom when it sponsored Manchester United F.C. from 1982 to 2000, which was a great period of success for the club.


In 1912, Tokuji Hayakawa (早川 徳次) founded a metal workshop in Tokyo. His first ever invention was a snap buckle named 'Tokubijo'. One of his first inventions was the Ever-Sharp mechanical pencil in 1915, from which the Sharp Corporation took its name.[1] After the pencil business was destroyed by the Great Kantō earthquake in 1923, the company relocated to Osaka and started designing the first Japanese radio sets. These went on sale in 1925. In 1953 Sharp started production of television sets. Other notable achievements include the world's first all-transistor desktop calculator in 1964 and the first LCD calculator in 1973. LCD technology continues to be a key part of Sharp's product range, in both the component and the consumer-appliance sides of the business.

 Core technologies
Further information: List of Sharp mobile phones
Core technologies and products include: LCD panels, solar panels, mobile phones, audio-visual entertainment equipment, video projectors, photocopiers, microwave ovens, cash registers, CMOS and CCD sensors, and flash memory.

The first commercial camera phone was also made by Sharp for the Japanese market in November 2000. Recent products include the ViewCam, the Ultra-Lite notebook PC, the Zaurus personal digital assistant, Sidekick 3, and the AQUOS flat screen television.

Sharp manufactures a variety of consumer electronic products. These include LCD televisions, sold under the Aquos brand, mobile phones, microwave ovens, Home Cinema and audio systems, air purification systems, fax machines and calculators.[2]

For the business market, Sharp also produces ranges of projectors and monitors and a variety of photocopiers and Laser Printers, in addition to electronic cash registers and Point of sale technologies.[3]

Sharp is a pioneer and innovator in the field of multi-functional devices (MFD) having won many awards from BLI and BERTL - the two major authorities providing competitive intelligence and test reviews in the print industry. SHARP's latest products - MX2600N and MX3100N have once again broken new ground with the launch of version 3 Open System Architecture (OSA3). This feature enhances productivity further still by letting third party developers directly integrate their business applications with the MFD.

Sharp Solar has been a leading supplier of silicon photovoltaic (PV) solar cells for a number of years [4] . Now, it offers solar TV [5].

Sharp's Mobile Communications Division created the world's first commercial camera phone, in Japan in 1997, and continues to be a leading player in the Japanese mobile phone market, also maintaining a position as a niche supplier outside Japan. Currently (2008), Sharp is collaborating with Emblaze Mobile on the Monolith, " ambitious project to design the ultimate holistic mobile device".

Humanoid robot
In 2006 Sharp said it has developed a humanoid robot that clears dishes from the table and puts them into a dishwasher. The robot (measuring 95x50x45cm) opens the door of the dishwasher, takes hold of teacups, rice bowls and plates, places them in the unit and closes the door

Net sales for the year 2003/4 were $16.8 billion. The Corporation employs 46,600 staff, of which around half live outside Japan. It operates from 64 bases in 30 countries and its products are distributed in 164 countries worldwide. Many of its regional subsidiaries trade under the name "Sharp Electronics".

As a semiconductor maker, Sharp is among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders and among the Top 100 R&D Spenders in a list published by the IEEE Spectrum magazine.

Manchester United
Sharp was the principal sponsor of Manchester United Football Club from 1982 until 2000, in one of the lengthiest and most lucrative sponsorship deals in English football.[8][9] Sharp's logo was on the front of United's shirts during these 17 years, during which the team won seven Premier League titles, five FA Cups, one Football League Cup, one European Cup Winners' Cup and one European Cup. As this period was something of a golden era for the club, with a (coincidental) decline in fortunes happening once Vodafone became the new shirt sponsors in 2000, some fans now term this period—particularly 1993–2000—as The Sharp Years.


Head Office in Osaka22-22, Nagaike-cho, Abeno-ku, Osaka, Japan
1 Sharp Plaza Mahwah, New Jersey 07430, USA 

what is Océ
Océ NV is a Netherlands-based company that manufactures and sells production printing and copying hardware and related software. Océ N.V. has been a listed company since 1958 and is the holding company for the international Océ Group. This group has operating companies in 25 industrialised countries. The Group has around 24,000 employees globally and gross income of over $3.5 billion per year. Over a third of its income comes from the North American market. The Océ headquarters is located in Venlo, the Netherlands.

Océ specializes in durable, high-end equipment, suitable for corporate publishing/reproduction centers as well as commercial printing and copying operations. Most of its equipment is high-speed (50 pages per minute and over) and has very high duty cycles (half a million pages a month and higher). It is also a leader in high-end color inkjet printing used for signage.

The company has research and development and production facilities in the Netherlands, Canada, Belgium, Germany, France, Japan, the Czech Republic, Romania and the United States.

Océ competes with companies like Xerox, Canon, Ricoh, and Hewlett-Packard.


History of the company (1877–Present)
Océ arrived at its current business indirectly. It started in 1877 as a family business in manufacturing machines for coloring butter and margarine. The company’s founder, a chemist named Lodewijk van der Grinten, supplied this colouring to farmers and then this was supplied to the first margerine factories. They continued to manufacture buttering colour until 1970.[5]

In 1919, the grandson of Lodewijk, Louis van der Grinten, became interested in the blueprint process used for producing wide-format technical drawings, used in construction, manufacturing, etc. At that time, blueprint paper was extremely light-sensitive, and therefore had a very short shelf life before being used. Louis invented a coating that made blueprint paper last longer, for up to a year. This is considered the company’s first step into providing document solutions.

In the 1920s, the company developed methods of copying originals using a dry diazo process. This process was to replace the blueprint process in the industry almost entirely by 1940. With this new process developed by Louis Van der Grinten, he treated the paper surface with chemicals which exposed the paper in the developing machine without having to add any further fluid.

Because the local stock exchange required three letter abbreviations, the company was renamed in 1927 as Océ, based on the German initials O.C. for "Ohne Componente" (without components).

In 1967, the company entered the office printing market with an electro-photographic process for copying documents using special, chemically-treated paper. It also started up a factory to build its own equipment.

The company sold its first plain-paper office copier in 1973. The new process they developed printed paper with an unusually short paper path, with mono-component toner, and transferred the image with ‘copy press’. This 'copy press' technology differs from true xerographic reproduction in that it does not use developer, utilizes fewer electro-static charges in the printing engine, maintains a lower fusing temperature, and supposedly minimizes ozone emission. Soon after, the company also developed an application for wide-format printing.

Since that time it has developed a wide range of patented technologies in printing, copying, and scanning. It has also developed advanced workflow products for help in preparing documents for printing.

 130th Birthday
In October 2007, Océ celebrated 130 years of being in business with a symposium in Venlo, the Netherlands, where the company’s main headquarters is situated. The company’s business partners congratulated the company with an advertisement in the American business paper, the Wall Street Journal.

 Acquisitions and Collaborations/Partnerships
Over the last few decades, Océ has made numerous acquisitions.

In 1978, Océ acquired UK-based Ozalid Group Holdings Ltd., developer of the Ozalid process of reproduction, and Océ’s biggest rival in the diazo printing market. With this acquisition of a company almost the size of Océ, Océ became the world leader in printing products for the engineering market.
In 1989, it bought the plotter business of French company Schlumberger. With this acquisition, important developments in colour printing, both for wide and narrow format, occurred for Océ.
In 1990 Océ bought the US based Bruning Company. Bruning was at that time the largest supplier of blueprinting equipment and paper in the USA. Bruning became the core of what is nowadays Océ-USA.
In 1995, the company entered the very high speed, high volume printing market when it acquired Siemens’ High Performance Printing Division of German computer company Siemens-Nixdorf. This division manufactures printers capable of producing over 1000 prints a minute. The applications are documents like telephone bills and bank statements. Also at this time, the Océ company started to bring digital printers/copiers to market.
In 1997 Océ acquired Cleveland, Ohio based Groupware Technology, a software company specializing in Electonic Document Management software to form Oce Groupware Technology.
In 2000 Océ acquired Espace Graphique, a French distributor of large-format display graphics equipment.
In 2001, it acquired the Professional Imaging Division of Swiss-based Gretag Imaging Group, Inc., a maker of large-format display printing equipment.
In 2005, it bought U.S.-based Imagistics International, Inc., a reseller of office copiers and multifunctionals.[3] [7] Océ made its largest transaction to date when it acquired Imagistics International Inc., formerly Pitney Bowes Office Systems (PBOS), an organization specializing in direct-sales of faxes and copiers. In late 2006, Imagistics became the Oce Digital Document Solutions (DDS) division, and later, the Document Printing Systems division. Based out of Trumbull, Connecticut, this division focuses on providing photocopiers, fax machines and associated document management software for companies of all sizes. Its North American operation currently makes up a significant portion of Océ's annual sales revenue.
In 2006, it bought U.S.-based CaseData, a leading provider of electronic discovery and litigation support services to U.S. law firms and corporations.
In 2007, Océ formed a partnership with Fujifilm, which will sell an OEM version of the Océ Arizona 250 GT flatbed printer in Japan.

In 2007, the partnership between Océ and Prism Software Corporation expanded.
In 2007, Océ and Videk were reported to announce a new collaboration to “bring state-of-the-art verification systems” to transaction document printing.
In 2008, Océ and Konica Minolta entered a "basic partnership" agreement, covering technology exchange and a shared sales program.


Environmental Initiatives
In October 2007, Océ started a new carbon positive offset scheme in UK. The scheme is administered through Shining Earth environmental consultants, and will result in tree planting in UK, and projects concerning renewable energy in China and methane capture in Germany.

Industry Recognitions

Océ received the ON DEMAND Best of Show Award for recognition of their design innovation with the VarioPrint 6250 digital duplex cut-sheet printer. The award recognized the printer as the world's fastest and most productive, operating at 250 images per minute (or 125 duplexed documents per minute).
Vocational Foundation, Inc. named Océ Business Services as ‘Employer of the Year’.

BERTL awards 4-star award to the Océ TDS450. 
2007 Socha-Gelbmann Survey: Top 20 provider of electronic discovery services. CaseData Division of Océ Business Services.
2007 Socha-Gelbmann Survey: Top 5 service provider (capacity). CaseData Division of Océ Business Services.
2007 InterTech Technology Award [PIA/GATF] to the Océ VarioPrint 6250.
2007 Black Book of Outsourcing ranked Océ Business Services as No. 1 Document Processing Outsourcing Vendor.
Management Awards of Catalonia for Innovation.
‘5-star, Exceptional’ by BERTL to the Océ TDS700 large format multifunctional system.
DPI Product of the Year Award to the Océ Arizona 250 GT flatbed printer.
viscom Innovation Award 2007 to the Océ Arizona 250 GT flatbed printer. 

what is MURATEC

Murata Machinery, Ltd. (村田機械株式会社 ,Murata Kikai Kabushiki-gaisha), abbrev. MML, is a privately held Japanese multinational corporation founded in 1935 with its Head Office at Fushimi-ku, Kyoto.

In 1972 at the dawn of modern telecommunication, MML began distributing fax and copier machines in Japan under an agreement with Graphic Science, inc. Two years later, MML began manufacturing facsimile equipment for the Japanese market under a licensing agreement with GSI.

MML is a leading provider of logistics and automation solutions. Its five independent divisions are recognized technology leaders in their respective markets: telecommunications equipment, textile machinery, automated warehousing equipment, high-precision machine tools, and clean room equipment and systems. With more than $1.5 billion in annual revenues, MML is one of Japan’s largest privately held companies.

The company entered the U.S. market in 1982 as Murata Business Systems to sell fax machines through private-label agreements with multiple U.S. companies. In January, 1985, the company began marketing its facsimile products under the Murata name from its corporate headquarters in Dallas, Texas. The company introduced the unified-brand Muratec in 1991 and realigned its business model away from retail in order to focus on sales and distribution exclusively through a national business-to-business dealer channel.

A different Murata
Murata Manufacturing is often confused with Murata Machinery. Murata Manufacturing has its headquarters in nearby Nagaokakyo.

what is Savin

Savin was incorporated in 1959 by Max Low (the company was named for Low's son-in-law) and was run by Low's son, Robert and E. Paul Charlap. It was known primarily for its line of liquid toner photocopiers, which set it apart from other companies that manufactured dry toner equipment.

During the 1960s and through the 1980s, Savin developed and sold a line of liquid-toner copiers that implemented a technology based on patents held by the company.[1]. Savin's copiers were manufactured by Ricoh Company and distributed by Savin in the US and Canada through 50 Branch offices and 500 dealers, and under licenses from Savin to Nashua Corp for Europe and South America and through Ricoh for the Far East. Savin ( approximate sales of $500 million) was listed on the New York Stock Exchange when it was sold in 1982 to Canadien Development Corp and later sold to other companies.

In 1995, Ricoh Company acquired Savin Corporation, at which time it was made a wholly owned sales subsidiary.

what is Mitsubishi

The Mitsubishi Group (三菱グループ ,Mitsubishi Gurūpu?), Mitsubishi Group of Companies, or Mitsubishi Companies is a Japanese conglomerate consisting of a range of autonomous businesses which share the Mitsubishi brand, trademark and legacy. The Mitsubishi group of companies form a loose entity, the Mitsubishi Keiretsu, which is often referenced in US and Japanese media and official reports; in general these companies all descend from the zaibatsu of the same name. A keiretsu is a common feature of Japanese corporate governance and refers to a collaborative group of integrated companies with extensive share crossholdings, personnel swaps and strategic co-operation. The top 25 companies are also members of the Mitsubishi Kin'yōkai, or "Friday Club", and meet monthly. The Committee is meant to facilitate communication and access of the brand through a portal web site


The first Mitsubishi company was a shipping firm established by Yataro Iwasaki (1834–1885) in 1870. In 1873, its name was changed to Mitsubishi Shokai (三菱商会). The name Mitsubishi (三菱) has two parts: "mitsu" meaning "three" and "hishi" (which becomes "bishi" in the middle of a word) meaning "water caltrop" (also called "water chestnut"), and hence "rhombus", which is reflected in the famous company's logo. It is also translated as "three diamonds".

The company bought into coal mining in 1881 by acquiring the Takashima mine and Hashima Island in 1890, using the produce to fuel their extensive steamship fleet. They also diversified into shipbuilding, banking, insurance, warehousing, and trade. Later diversification carried the organization into such sectors as paper, steel, glass, electrical equipment, aircraft, oil, and real estate. As Mitsubishi built a broadly based conglomerate, it played a central role in the modernization of Japanese industry.

The merchant fleet entered into a period of diversification that would eventually result in the creation of three entities:

Mitsubishi Bank (now a part of the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group) was founded in 1919. After its mergers with the Bank of Tokyo in 1996, and UFJ Holdings in 2004, this became Japan's largest bank.
Mitsubishi Corporation, founded in 1950, Japan's largest general trading company
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, which includes these industrial companies.
Mitsubishi Motors, the 6th largest Japanese auto manufacturer.
Mitsubishi Atomic Industry, a nuclear power company.
Mitsubishi Chemical, the largest Japanese chemicals company



New era
Mitsubishi participated in Japan's unprecedented economic growth of the 1950s and 1960s. For example, as Japan modernized its energy and materials industries, the Mitsubishi companies created Mitsubishi Petrochemical, Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Mitsubishi Liquefied Petroleum Gas, and Mitsubishi Petroleum Development.

The traditional Mitsubishi emphasis on technological development was in new ventures in such fields as space development, aviation, ocean development, data communications, computers, and semiconductors. Mitsubishi companies also were active in consumer goods and services.

In 1970, Mitsubishi companies established the Mitsubishi Foundation to commemorate the centennial anniversary of the founding of the first Mitsubishi company. The companies also individually maintain charitable foundations. Mitsubishi pavilions have been highlights of expositions in Japan since the historic EXPO'70 in Osaka in 1970's to 1980's

As of 2007, Mitsubishi Corporation, a member of the Mitsubishi Group, is Japan's largest general trading company (sogo shosha) with over 200 bases of operations in approximately 80 countries worldwide. Together with its over 500 group companies, Mitsubishi employs a multinational workforce of approximately 54,000 people. Mitsubishi has long been engaged in business with customers around the world in many industries, including energy, metals, machinery, chemicals, food and general merchandise.

Mitsubishi Motors reached 1.3 million cars of total production in 2007.

what is Toshiba

Toshiba Corporation (株式会社東芝 ,Kabushiki-gaisha Tōshiba ?) (TYO: 6502) is a multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. The company's main business is in Infrastructure, Consumer Products, and Electronic devices and components.

Toshiba-made Semiconductors are among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders. Toshiba is the world's fifth largest personal computer manufacturer, after Hewlett-Packard and Dell of the U.S., Acer of Taiwan and Lenovo of China and US.

Toshiba was founded by the merging of two companies in 1939.

One, Tanaka Seizosho (Tanaka Engineering Works), was Japan's first manufacturer of telegraph equipment and was established by Hisashige Tanaka in 1875. In 1904, its name was changed to Shibaura Seisakusho (Shibaura Engineering Works). Through the first part of the 20th century Shibaura Engineering Works became a major manufacturer of heavy electrical machinery as Japan modernized during the Meiji Era and became a world industrial power.

The second company, Hakunetsusha, was established in 1890 and was Japan's first producer of incandescent electric lamps. It diversified into the manufacture of other consumer products and in 1899 was renamed Tokyo Denki (Tokyo Electric).

The merger in 1939 of Shibaura Seisakusho and Tokyo Denki created a new company called Tokyo Shibaura Denki (東京芝浦電気). It was soon nicknamed Toshiba, but it was not until 1978 that the company was officially renamed Toshiba Corporation.

The group expanded strongly, both by internal growth and by acquisitions, buying heavy engineering and primary industry firms in the 1940s and 1950s and then spinning off subsidiaries in the 1970s and beyond. Groups created include Toshiba EMI (1960), Toshiba International Corporation (1970's) Toshiba Electrical Equipment (1974), Toshiba Chemical (1974), Toshiba Lighting and Technology (1989), Toshiba America Information Systems (1989) and Toshiba Carrier Corporation (1999).

Toshiba was responsible for a number of Japanese firsts, including radar (1942), the TAC digital computer (1954), transistor television and microwave oven (1959), color video phone (1971), Japanese word processor (1978), MRI system (1982), laptop personal computer (1986), NAND EEPROM (1991), DVD (1995), the Libretto sub-notebook personal computer (1996) and HD DVD (2005).

In 1977, Toshiba merged with the Brazilian company Semp (Sociedade Eletromercantil Paulista), forming Semp Toshiba

In 1987, Toshiba Machine, a subsidiary of Toshiba, was accused of illegally selling CNC milling machines used to produce very quiet submarine propellers to the Soviet Union in violation of the CoCom agreement, an international embargo on Western exports to East Bloc countries. The Toshiba-Kongsberg scandal involved a subsidiary of Toshiba and the Norwegian company Kongsberg Vaapenfabrikk. The incident strained relations between the United States and Japan, and resulted in the arrest and prosecution of two senior executives, as well as the imposition of sanctions on the company by both countries.[3] The US had always relied on the fact that the Soviets had noisy boats, so technology that would make the USSR's submarines harder to detect created a significant threat to America's security. Senator John Heinz of Pennsylvania said "What Toshiba and Kongsberg did was ransom the security of the United States for $517 million."

In 2001, Toshiba signed a contract with Orion Electric, one of the world's largest OEM consumer video electronic makers and suppliers, to manufacture and supply finished consumer TV and video products for Toshiba to meet the increasing demand for the North American market. The contract ended in 2008, ending 7 years of OEM production with Orion.

In December 2004, Toshiba quietly announced it would discontinue manufacturing traditional in-house cathode ray tube (CRT) televisions. In 2006, Toshiba terminated production of in-house plasma TVs. Toshiba quickly switched to Orion as the supplier and maker of Toshiba-branded CRT-based TVs and plasma TVs until 2007. To ensure its future competitiveness in the flat-panel digital television and display market, Toshiba has made a considerable investment in a new kind of display technology called SED.

Before World War II, Toshiba was a member of the Mitsui Group zaibatsu. Today Toshiba is a member of the Mitsui keiretsu (a set of companies with interlocking business relationships and shareholdings), and still has preferential arrangements with Mitsui Bank and the other members of the keiretsu. Membership in a keiretsu traditionally meant loyalty, both corporate and private, to other members of the keiretsu or allied keiretsu. This loyalty could extend as far as the beer that workers would consume, which in Toshiba's case was Asahi.

In July 2005, BNFL confirmed it planned to sell Westinghouse Electric Company, then estimated to be worth $1.8bn (£1bn). However the bid attracted interest from several companies including Toshiba, General Electric and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and when the Financial Times reported on January 23, 2006 that Toshiba had won the bid, it valued the company's offer at $5bn (£2.8bn). The bid surprised many industry experts who questioned the wisdom of selling one of the world's largest producers of nuclear reactors shortly before the market for nuclear power is expected to grow substantially; China, the United States and the United Kingdom are all expected to invest heavily in nuclear power. The acquisition of Westinghouse for $5.4bn was completed on October 17, 2006, with Toshiba obtaining a 77% share, and partners The Shaw Group a 20% share and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. a 3% share

As a chip maker, Toshiba Semiconductors is a major player. During the eighties, it was one of the two largest semiconductor companies (with NEC). During the nineties and up to now, Toshiba Semiconductors was almost always among the Top 5[citation needed]. In 2007, Toshiba Semiconductors is number 3, behind Intel and Samsung.

Also, in late 2007, Toshiba's logo replaced the former Discover Card logo on one of the screens atop One Times Square. It displays the iconic New Year's countdown on its screen, as well as messages, greetings, and advertisements for the company.

In January of 2009, Toshiba acquired the HDD business of Fujitsu.Transfer of the business is supposed to conclude at the end of the fiscal 1st quarter of 2009.

Current status
In March 2008, Toshiba announced that it had launched a new company in America called, "Toshiba America Nuclear Energy corp". The primary mission of the company is marketing and promoting advanced boiling water nuclear power plants and providing support for related services.

Toshiba is believed to prepare (together with the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry) the small (30MW) nuclear plant Toshiba 4S for installation at Galena, Alaska and even smaller (200KW) plants for Japan and Europe; but the information about such plants does not appear on Toshiba's homepage Toshiba Worldwide.

Toshiba occupies a good position in the worldwide marker of semiconductors, see Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Market Share Ranking Year by Year

what is Hitachi 
Hitachi Ltd. (株式会社日立製作所 ,Kabushiki-gaisha Hitachi Seisakusho?) (TYO: 6501, NYSE: HIT) is a multinational corporation specializing in high-technology and services headquartered in Marunouchi Itchome, Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan. The company is the parent of the Hitachi Group (Hitachi Gurūpu) as part of the larger DKB Group companies.

On the 2007 Forbes Global 2000 list, Hitachi is ranked number 371.

Hitachi was founded in 1910 as an electrical repair shop. Today, it is one of the leading manufacturers in new technology.

 Hitachi Works
Hitachi Works is the oldest member of the Hitachi Group and consists of three factories: Kaigan, Yamatte, and Rinkai Works. Yamatte Works, the oldest of the three factories, was founded in 1910 by Namihei Odaira as an electrical equipment repair and manufacturing facility. This facility was named Hitachi, and is regarded as the ancestral home of Hitachi, Ltd.

Many management trainees intern at Hitachi Works before being permanently assigned to other Hitachi divisions. Senior management personnel are often participants in rotations at Hitachi Works for a few years as their career develops towards eventual head office stature. As a result, many of the senior managers of Hitachi Ltd have passed through Hitachi Works.

Spin-off entities from Hitachi Works include Hitachi Cable (1956) and Hitachi Canadian Industries (1988).

In 2007, Hitachi won the Investment in People Award, Asia Pacific Entrepreneurship Awards from Enterprise Asia, a regional NGO based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia for their continued efforts in building human talents.

Main products and services

Hitachi divides its operations into seven industry segments. These segments are listed below with the main products and services offered by each. The figure in parentheses shown with each segment is the percentage of total revenue (for the fiscal year ended March 2007) derived from that segment.

Information and Telecommunication Systems (21%)


System integration
Outsourcing services
Hard disk drives
Disk array subsystems
Mainframe computers
Personal computers
Telecommunications equipment
Electronic Devices (11%)

Semiconductor manufacturing equipment
Power tools
Test and measurement equipment
Medical electronics equipment
Semiconductor devices
Power & Industrial Systems (26%)

Nuclear, thermal and hydroelectric power plants
Industrial machinery and plants
Automotive products
Construction machinery
Railway vehicles (see Hitachi Rail)
Digital Media & Consumer Products (13%)

Optical disk drives
Plasma and LCD Televisions
LCD projectors
Mobile phones
Room air conditioners
MP3 players
Washing machines
Bread machines
Information storage media
Air conditioning equipment
High Functional Materials & Components (15%)

Wires and cables
Copper products
Semiconductor materials
Circuit boards and materials
Organic and inorganic chemical products
Synthetic resin products
Display-related materials
Specialty steels
Magnetic materials and components
High grade casting components and materials
Logistics, Services & Others (10%)

General trading
Property management
Financial Services (4%)

Loan Guarantees
Insurance Services
Invoice Factoring
Invoice Finance

Investor relations

Hitachi stock is traded on the following exchanges:

New York (HIT - American Depositary Receipt), Tokyo (6501), Osaka, Nagoya, Fukuoka and Sapporo stock exchanges

 Research and development

Research is conducted in six corporate laboratories and in overseas R&D organizations.

 Corporate laboratories
Central Research Laboratory

Information & Communications
Solution LSIs
Advanced Devices
Life Science
Embedded Systems
Advanced Research Laboratory

Human & Information
Medical & Bio
Environment & Energy
Materials & Nanotechnology
Hitachi Research Laboratory

Fuel cells through the use of nanotechnology
Hybrid battery cars
High strength nano-glass substrates
Nano-grain encapsulation and self-assembly
High-performance power supplies
Systems Development Laboratory

Information Systems
Ubiquitous Storage
Service Solutions
Mechanical Engineering Research Laboratory

Mechatronics Application Systems
Production Engineering Research Laboratory

Management Systems
Production Engineering 

what is Sony

Sony Corporation (ソニー株式会社 ,Sonī Kabushiki Gaisha?) is a multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan, and one of the world's largest media conglomerates with revenue exceeding US$99.1 billion (as of 2008).[1] Sony is one of the leading manufacturers of electronics, video, communications, video game consoles, and information technology products for the consumer and professional markets. Its name is derived from sonus, the Latin word for sound.[4]

Sony Corporation is the electronics business unit and the parent company of the Sony Group, which is engaged in business through its five operating segments—electronics, games, entertainment (motion pictures and music), financial services and other. These make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world. Sony's principal business operations include Sony Corporation (Sony Electronics in the U.S.), Sony Pictures Entertainment, Sony Computer Entertainment, Sony Music Entertainment, Sony Ericsson, and Sony Financial Holdings. As a semiconductor maker, Sony is among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders. The company's slogan is Sony. Like no other

In 1945, after World War II, Masaru Ibuka started a radio repair shop in a bombed-out building in Tokyo. The next year, he was joined by his colleague Akio Morita and they founded a company called Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo K.K.,[6] which translates in English to Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corporation. The company built Japan's first tape recorder called the Type-G.

In the early 1950s, Ibuka traveled in the United States and heard about Bell Labs' invention of the transistor.He convinced Bell to license the transistor technology to his Japanese company. While most American companies were researching the transistor for its military applications, Ibuka looked to apply it to communications. Although the American companies Regency and Texas Instruments built the first transistor radios, it was Ibuka's company that made them commercially successful for the first time. In August 1955, Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering released the Sony TR-55, Japan's first commercially produced transistor radio.[7] They followed up in December of the same year by releasing the Sony TR-72, a product that won favor both within Japan and in export markets, including Canada, Australia, the Netherlands and Germany. Featuring six transistors, push-pull output and greatly improved sound quality, the TR-72 continued to be a popular seller into the early sixties.

In May 1956, the company released the TR-6, which featured an innovative slim design and sound quality capable of rivaling portable tube radios. It was for the TR-6 that Sony first contracted "Atchan", a cartoon character created by Fuyuhiko Okabe, to become its advertising character. Now known as "Sony Boy", the character first appeared in a cartoon ad holding a TR-6 to his ear, but went on to represent the company in ads for a variety of products well into the mid-sixties.[6] The following year, 1957, Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering came out with the TR-63 model, then the smallest (112 × 71 × 32 mm) transistor radio in commercial production. It was a worldwide commercial success.[6]

University of Arizona professor Michael Brian Schiffer, Ph.D., says, "Sony was not first, but its transistor radio was the most successful. The TR-63 of 1957 cracked open the U.S. market and launched the new industry of consumer microelectronics." By the mid 1950s, American teens had begun buying portable transistor radios in huge numbers, helping to propel the fledgling industry from an estimated 100,000 units in 1955 to 5,000,000 units by the end of 1968.

Sony's headquarters moved to Minato, Tokyo from Shinagawa, Tokyo around the end of 2006.

Origin of name
The Sony building in the Ginza area of Chūō, TokyoWhen Kogyo was looking for a romanized name to use to market themselves, they strongly considered using their initials, TTK. The primary reason they did not is that the railway company Tokyo Kyuko was known as TKK.[6] The company occasionally used the acronym "Totsuko" in Japan, but during his visit to the United States, Morita discovered that Americans had trouble pronouncing that name. Another early name that was tried out for a while was "Tokyo Teletech" until Morita discovered that there was an American company already using Teletech as a brand name.

The name "Sony" was chosen for the brand as a mix of two words. One was the Latin word Sonus which is the root of "sonic" and "sound" and the other was "sonny", a familiar term used in 1950s America to call a boy.Morita pushed for a word that does not exist in any language so that they could claim the word "Sony" as their own (which paid off when they successfully sued a candy producer using the name, who claimed that "Sony" was an existing word in some language).

At the time of the change, it was extremely unusual for a Japanese company to use Roman letters instead of kanji to spell its name. The move was not without opposition: TTK's principal bank at the time, Mitsui, had strong feelings about the name. They pushed for a name such as Sony Electronic Industries, or Sony Teletech. Akio Morita was firm, however, as he did not want the company name tied to any particular industry. Eventually, both Ibuka and Mitsui Bank's chairman gave their approval


Notable Sony products, technologies and proprietary formats
See also: List of Sony trademarks
A Sony VCRSony has historically been notable for creating its own in-house standards for new recording and storage technologies instead of adopting those of other manufacturers and standards bodies. The most infamous of these was the videotape format war of the early 1980s, when Sony marketed the Betamax system for video cassette recorders against the VHS format developed by JVC. In the end, VHS gained critical mass in the marketplace and became the worldwide standard for consumer VCRs and Sony adopted the format. While Betamax is for all practical purposes an obsolete format, a professional-oriented component video format called Betacam that was derived from Betamax is still used today, especially in the film and television industry.

In 1968 Sony introduced the Trinitron brand name for its line of aperture grille cathode ray tube televisions and (later) computer monitors. Trinitron displays are still produced, but only for markets such as Pakistan, Bangladesh, India and China. Sony discontinued the last Trinitron-based television set in the USA Spring of 2007. Trinitron computer monitors were discontinued in 2005.

Sony launched the Betamax videocassette recording format in 1975. In 1979 the Walkman brand was introduced, in the form of the world's first portable music player.

1982 saw the launch of Sony's professional Betacam videotape format and the collaborative Compact Disc format. In 1983 Sony introduced 90 mm micro diskettes (better known as 3.5-inch (89 mm) floppy disks), which it had developed at a time when there were 4" floppy disks and a lot of variations from different companies to replace the then on-going 5.25" floppy disks. Sony had great success and the format became dominant; 3.5" floppy disks gradually became obsolete as they were replaced by current media formats. In 1983 Sony launched the MSX, a home computer system, and introduced the world (with their counterpart Philips) to the Compact Disc or CD. In 1984 Sony launched the Discman series which extended their Walkman brand to portable CD products. In 1985 Sony launched their Handycam products and the Video8 format. Video8 and the follow-on hi-band Hi8 format became popular in the consumer camcorder market. In 1987 Sony launched the 4 mm DAT or Digital Audio Tape as a new digital audio tape standard.

Sony DiscmanIn addition to developing consumer-based recording media, after the launch of the CD Sony began development of commercially based recording media. In 1986 they launched Write-Once optical discs (WO) and in 1988 launched Magneto-optical discs which were around 125MB size for the specific use of archival data storage.

In the early 1990s two high-density optical storage standards were being developed: one was the MultiMedia Compact Disc (MMCD), backed by Philips and Sony, and the other was the Super Density disc (SD), supported by Toshiba and many others. Philips and Sony abandoned their MMCD format and agreed upon Toshiba's SD format with only one modification based on MMCD technology, viz EFMPlus. The unified disc format was called DVD which was marketed in 1997.

Sony introduced the MiniDisc format in 1993 as an alternative to Philips DCC or Digital Compact Cassette. Since the introduction of MiniDisc, Sony has attempted to promote its own audio compression technologies under the ATRAC brand, against the more widely used MP3. Until late 2004, Sony's Network Walkman line of digital portable music players did not support the MP3 de facto standard natively, although the provided software SonicStage would convert MP3 files into the ATRAC or ATRAC3 formats.

Sony's BRAVIA series HDTVIn 1993, Sony challenged the industry standard Dolby Digital 5.1 surround sound format with a newer and more advanced proprietary motion picture digital audio format called SDDS (Sony Dynamic Digital Sound). This format employed eight channels (7.1) of audio opposed to just six used in Dolby Digital 5.1 at the time. Unlike Dolby Digital, SDDS utilized a method of backup by having mirrored arrays of bits on both sides of the film which acted as a measure of reliability in case the film was partially damaged. Ultimately, SDDS has been vastly overshadowed by the preferred DTS (Digital Theatre System) and Dolby Digital standards in the motion picture industry. SDDS was solely developed for use in the theatre circuit; Sony never intended to develop a home theatre version of SDDS.

The Slimline PlayStation 2In 1998, Sony launched their Memory Stick format; flash memory cards for use in Sony lines of digital cameras and portable music players. It has seen little support outside of Sony's own products with Secure Digital (SD) cards commanding considerably greater popularity. Sony has made updates to the Memory Stick format with Memory Stick Duo and Memory Stick Micro.

Sony and Philips jointly developed the Sony-Philips digital interface format (S/PDIF) and the high-fidelity audio system SACD. The latter has since been entrenched in a format war with DVD-Audio. At present, neither has gained a major foothold with the general public. CDs are preferred by consumers because of ubiquitous presence of CD drives in consumer devices.

In 1994 Sony launched the PlayStation (later PS one). This successful console was succeeded by the PlayStation 2 in 2000, itself succeeded by the PlayStation 3 in 2006. The PlayStation 2 has become the most successful video game console of all time. It has sold a total of over 140 million units and still going. The PlayStation brand was extended to the portable games market in 2005 by the PlayStation Portable. Sony developed the Universal Media Disc (UMD) optical disc medium for use on the PlayStation Portable. Although Sony tried to push the UMD format for movies, major studios stopped supporting the format in the Spring of 2006.

In 2004, Sony built upon the MiniDisc format by releasing Hi-MD. Hi-MD allows the playback and recording of audio on newly-introduced 1 GB Hi-MD discs in addition to playback and recording on regular MiniDiscs. Recordings on the Hi-MD Walkmans can be transferred to and from the computer virtually unrestricted, unlike earlier NetMD. In addition to saving audio on the discs, Hi-MD allows the storage of computer files such as documents, videos and photos. Hi-MD introduced the ability to record CD-quality audio with a linear PCM recording feature. It was the first time since MiniDisc's introduction in 1992 that the ATRAC codec could be bypassed and lossless CD-quality audio could be recorded on the small discs.

Sony's retail store, Sony StyleSony was one of the leading developers and remains one of the strongest proponents of the Blu-ray Disc optical disc format, which eventually emerged as the market leader over the competing standard, Toshiba's HD DVD, after a 2 year-long format war. The first Blu-ray players became commercially available in June 2006, and Sony's first Blu-ray player, the Sony BDP-S1, debuted in December 2006 with an MSRP of US $999.95. By the end of 2007 the format had the backing of every major motion picture studio except Universal, Paramount, and Dreamworks. The Blu-ray format's popularity continued to increase, solidifying its position as the dominant HD media format, and Toshiba announced its decision to stop supporting HD DVD on 19 February 2008.

Sony VAIO fashion show in 2008On September 10, 2007 Sony unveiled Rolly, an egg-shaped digital robotic music player which has colour lights that flash as it “dances” and has flapping wings that can twist to its tunes. Movements along with the music downloaded from personal computers and Bluetooth can be set. Rolly, which went on sale in Japan on September 29, 2007, has one gigabyte of memory to store tunes. Sony also developed dog-shaped robots called Aibo and humanoids and Qrio.[16]

In summary, Sony has over the years introduced these standards: Umatic (~1968), Betamax (1975), Betacam (81), Compact Disc (82), 3.5 inch Floppy Disk (82), Video8 (85), DAT (87), Hi8 (88), Minidisc (~90), Digital Betacam (~90), miniDV (92), Memory Stick (98), Digital8 (99), PSP Universal Media Disc (~2003), HDV (~2004), Blu-ray Disc (2006).

On June 22, 2005, Nobuyuki Idei stepped down as Sony Corp. Chairman and Group CEO and was replaced by Howard Stringer, then Chairman and CEO of Sony Corporation of America, Corporate Executive Officer, Vice Chairman and COO Sony Entertainment Business Group. Sony's decision to replace Idei with the British Howard Stringer marked the first time that a foreigner has run a major Japanese electronics firm. On the same date, Kunitake Ando stepped down as President and was replaced by Ryoji Chubachi.


Mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures
1987 — On November 18, 1987, Sony acquired CBS Records Group from CBS. It was renamed "Sony Music Entertainment" in 1991.
1989 — Acquired Columbia Pictures Entertainment from the Coca-Cola Company for US$3.4 billion. It was subsequently renamed "Sony Pictures Entertainment" in 1991.
1993 — Acquired Psygnosis Limited a computer games company based in Liverpool, UK. Psygnosis director Ian Hetherington was made Managing Director of Sony Computer Entertainment Europe.[
1995 — Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, a 50:50 joint venture of Sony Corporation of America and Michael Jackson.
1997 — ST Liquid Crystal Display Corporation (STLCD), a 50:50 joint venture of Sony Corporation and Toyota Industries Corporation.
2001 — Sony Ericsson, a 50:50 joint venture of Sony Corporation and Ericsson AB, was established in October.
2002 — Aiwa Corporation in October.
2004 — S-LCD Corporation, a joint venture of Sony Corporation and Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd (Samsung Electronics: 50% plus 1 share, Sony: 50% minus 1 share) was established in April.
2004 — On 20 July 2004, the EU approved a 50-50 merger between Sony Music Entertainment and BMG. The new company was named Sony BMG Music Entertainment and, as of 2005, holds a 21.5% share in the global music market, behind worldwide leader Universal Music Group, which has a 25.5% share.
2005 — On 8 April 2005, The MGM Company (Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and United Artists) was acquired by a Sony-led consortium (Providence Equity Partners 29%, Texas Pacific Group 21%, Sony 20%, Comcast 20%, DLJ Merchant Banking Partners 7% and Quadrangle Group 3%) finalized the deal to purchase the film studio for about $4.8 billion, including $2bn in debts from Armenian-American Kirk Kerkorian.
2006 — Sony NEC Optiarc Inc, a 55:45 (Sony 55%, NEC 45%) joint venture of Sony Corporation and NEC Corporation, was established in April.
2006 — Obtained an option to acquire half of Michael Jackson's 50% stake in Sony/ATV Music Publishing.
2006 — Acquired digital Single Lens Reflex (Digital SLR) cameras section from Konica Minolta including digital camera support and servicing.
2006 — Acquired Grouper Networks (now Crackle, Inc.), a Sausalito-based startup company that created a user generated video sharing platform and P2P technology for $65M.
2006 — Field Emission Technologies Inc., a carve-out of Sony's nano-Spindt FED technology. Established in December 2006 by Technology Carve-Out Investment LLP (62.2%) and Sony (37.8%).
2007 — Qreatic Design Inc, a 50:50 joint venture of Sony Corporation and Qimonda AG.
2007 — Moversa GmbH, a 50:50 joint venture of Sony Corporation and NXP Semiconductors.
2008 — Acquired Gracenote, Inc. for $260M.[19][20]
2008 — Acquired Bertelsmann AG's 50% stake in Sony BMG Music Entertainment

Manufacturing base
Slightly more than 50% of the electronics' segment's total annual production during the fiscal year 2005 took place in Japan, including the production of digital cameras, video cameras, flat panel televisions, personal computers, semiconductors and components such as batteries and Memory Stick. Approximately 65% of the annual production in Japan was destined for other regions. China accounted for slightly more than 10% of total annual production, approximately 70% of which was destined for other regions.

Asia, excluding Japan and China, accounted for slightly more than 10% of total annual production with approximately 60% destined for Japan, the US and the EU. The Americas and Europe together accounted for the remaining slightly less than 25% of total annual production, most of which was destined for local distribution and sale.


[edit] Fictitious movie reviewer
In July 2000, a marketing executive working for Sony Corporation created a fictitious film critic, David Manning, who gave consistently good reviews for releases from Sony subsidiary Columbia Pictures, which generally received poor reviews amongst real critics.

Digital rights management
Main article: 2005 Sony BMG CD copy protection scandal
In October 2005, it was revealed by Mark Russinovich of Sysinternals that Sony BMG Music Entertainment's music CDs had installed a rootkit on the user's computer as a DRM measure (called Extended Copy Protection by its creator, British company First 4 Internet), which was difficult to detect or remove.[25] This constitutes a crime in many countries, and poses a major security risk to affected users. The uninstaller Sony initially provided removed the rootkit, but in turn installed a dial-home program that posed an even greater security risk. Sony eventually provided an actual uninstaller that removed all of Sony's DRM program from the user's computer. Sony BMG faced several class action lawsuits regarding this matter.[26] On 31 January 2007, the U. S. Federal Trade Commission issued a news release announcing that Sony BMG had agreed to settle Federal Trade Commission charges that Sony BMG committed several offenses against United States federal law. This settlement required that Sony BMG allow consumers to exchange the CDs through 30 June 2007, and to reimburse consumers for up to $150 for the repair of damage to their computers that they may have incurred while removing the software.

In 2006 Sony started using ARccOS Protection on some of their film DVDs, which caused compatibility problems with some DVD players—including models manufactured by Sony. After complaints, Sony was forced to issue a recall.[27]

In August 2007, security firm F-Secure reported that the MicroVault USB thumb drive installs a rootkit in a hidden directory without consent on user computers. The directory is intended to protect fingerprint data, however it can be used for malicious means as most virus scanners will not search for the directory or its contents.[28] Sony advised it was conducting an investigation on the third-party product, and would offer a fix by mid-September.[29]

Sony admitted in late 2005 to hiring graffiti artists to spray paint advertisements for their PlayStation Portable game system in seven major U.S. cities including New York City, Philadelphia, and San Francisco.[30] The mayor of Philadelphia filed a cease and desist order. According to Sony, they paid businesses and building owners for the right to graffiti their walls. As of early January 2006, Sony had no plans to keep or withdraw them.

In July 2006, Sony released a Dutch advertising campaign featuring a white model dressed entirely in white and a black model garbed in black. The first ad featured the white model clutching the face of the black model. The words "White is coming" headlined one of the ads. The ad has been viewed as racist by critics.[32] A Sony spokesperson responded that the ad does not have a racist message, saying that it was only trying to depict the contrast between the black PSP model and the new ceramic white PSP. Other pictures of the ad campaign include the black model overpowering the white model.

In November 2006, a marketing company employed by Sony created a website entitled "All I want for Xmas is a PSP", designed to promote the PSP through viral marketing. The site contained a blog, which was purportedly written by "Charlie", a teenager attempting to get his friend "Jeremy"'s parents to buy him a PSP, providing links to t-shirt iron-ons, Christmas cards, and a "music video" of either Charlie or Jeremy "rapping". However, visitors to the website soon discovered that the website was registered to a marketing company, exposing the site on sites such as YouTube and digg, and Sony was forced to admit the site's true origin in a post on the blog, stating that they would from then on "stick to making cool products" and that they would use the website for "the facts on the PSP". The site has since been taken down. In an interview with, Sony admitted that the idea was "poorly executed".


Made in Japan : Akio Morita and Sony is an autobiography of Akio Morita, the co-founder and former chairman of Sony Corporation. It was written with the assistance of Edwin M. Reingold and Mitsuko Shimomura. The book not only narrates the story of Morita, but also of the Sony Corporation's formation in the aftermath of Japan's brutal defeat in World War II, and its subsequent rapid rise to fame and fortune. The book also provides insights into Japanese culture and the Japanese way of thinking, particularly their business management philosophies and styles. The Japanese behavior is explained by putting it into a context based on Japan's history, recent and ancient.

Morita introduces the origins of his family, and how Sony was founded. Chapters picture the war, early tape recorders, and various conclusions on international markets. The transistor was invented in North America in the 1950's, and Sony took advantage of it. The biography gives authentic details about patent issues, business conferences in various countries, and the invention of the Walkman.

The book is narrated by Morita in an intensely personal, down to earth, conversational style.

The autobiography was originally published in English (ISBN 0525244654) in 1986 and has been translated to 12 languages.

what is 3M

3M Company (NYSE: MMM) (Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company), is an American multinational conglomerate corporation with a worldwide presence.

With over 75,000 employees they produce thousands of products, including: adhesives, abrasives, laminates, passive fire protection, dental products, electrical materials, electronic circuits and optical films.[1] 3M has operations in more than 60 countries – 29 international companies with manufacturing operations, and 35 with laboratories. 3M products are available for purchase through distributors and retailers in more than 200 countries, and many 3M products are available online directly from the company.

3M started out on the North Shore of Lake Superior at Two Harbors, Minnesota in 1902. The company then moved to Duluth, Minnesota, and then again to Saint Paul, Minnesota. 3M stayed for 15 years before outgrowing the campus and moving to its current headquarters in Maplewood (a St. Paul suburb), where it is still based today. The new campus in Maplewood is 475 acres (1.92 km2) and has over 50 buildings, including an 'innovation center' that displays products 3M has brought to market. The company began by mining stone from quarries for use in grinding wheels. Struggling with quality and marketing of its products, top management supported its workers to innovate and develop new products, which eventually would develop into its core business. Twelve years after being founded, 3M was able to develop its first exclusive product: 3M Three-M-ite cloth. Other innovations around this time by 3M included waterproof sandpaper and masking tape. After this point, the famous Scotch brand tape was “born.” By 1929 3M made its first moves in to an international expansion by forming “Durex” in order to conduct business in Europe. This same year, the company’s stocks were first traded over the counter and in 1946 the stocks were listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). The company is currently a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average and of the S&P 500.

3M was founded by Henry S. Bryan, Herman W. Cable, John Dwan, William A, McGonagle,Tahir Farhad, and Dr. J. Danley Budd. The founders' original plan was to sell the mineral corundum to manufacturers in the East for making grinding wheels. After selling only one load, on [June 13, 1902 the five went to the Two Harbors office of company secretary John Dwan, which was on the shore of Lake Superior and is now part of the 3M Museum, and signed papers making Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing a corporation. In reality, however, Dwan and his associates were not selling what they thought; they were in fact selling the worthless mineral anorthosite.

Failing to make sandpaper with the anorthosite, the founders decided to import minerals like Spanish garnet, after which sale of sandpapers grew. In 1914, customers complained that the garnet was falling off the paper. The founders discovered that the stones had traveled across the Atlantic Ocean packed with olive oil, and the oil had penetrated the stones. Unable to take the loss of selling expensive inventory, they simply roasted the stones over a fire to remove the olive oil. This was the first instance of research and development at 3M.

In 1916 company general manager William L. McKnight applied the same scientific methods to production that he had used to save the company from bankruptcy,and bought the company's first lab for $500.


The company's early innovations include waterproof sandpaper (1921) and masking tape (1925), as well as cellophane "Scotch Tape" and sound deadening materials for cars. 3M's corporate image is built on its innovative and unique products, with up to 25% of sales each year from new products[citation needed].

After World War II 3M opened plants across the United States. During the 1950s the company expanded worldwide with operations in Canada, Mexico, France, Germany, Australia, and the United Kingdom in large part by Clarence Sampair. In 1951, international sales were approximately $20 million. 3M’s achievements were recognized by the American Institute of Management naming the company “one of the five best-managed companies in the United States and included it among the top 12 growth stocks (3M).”

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, 3M published a line of board games, largely under the "3M bookshelf game series" brand. These games were marketed to adults and sold through department stores, with easily learned simple rules but complex game play and depth and with uniformly high quality components. As such, they are the ancestors of the German "Eurogames". The games covered a variety of topics, from business and sports simulations to word and abstract strategy games. They were a major publisher at the time for influential American designers Sid Sackson and Alex Randolph. In the mid-1970s, the game line was taken over by Avalon Hill.

3M traffic signals installed in Shelton, Washington. Standing off-axis from the intended viewing area, these signals appear to be "off" or invisible to adjacent lanes of traffic during the daytime. (A faint glow is present in the lit indication when viewed at night)
The same two signals above, taken in the signal's intended viewing area (a single lane of northbound traffic). Special light-diffusing optics and a colored fresnel lens create the indication.In 1969, 3M introduced its first and only traffic signal, the Model 131. Labeled a "programmable visibility" signal, the signal had the unique ability to be "programmed" so it was visible from certain angles. The Model 131's "programmability" was achieved via masking a clear glass lens with aluminum adhesive tape.  It was the first of its type and one of only two of the design in history. 3M sold these signals for special-use applications, such as left turn signals, skewed intersections, or dangerous intersections where a very bright indication is needed. The signals are very heavy (roughly 55 pounds per signal head) and expensive to maintain, and removal is quite frequent in some areas. In addition to the 3M Model 131 traffic signal, 3M also marketed and sold a retrofit kit for 12-inch (300 mm) conventional signals using modified M-131 optics, a retrofit kit for eight-inch (203 mm) conventional signals using a smaller version of the M-131 optical assembly, a Model 130 Programmable Visibility pedestrian signal (a M-131 with pedestrian signal indications), and a few bi-modal modifications of the M-131. As of 2005, 3M no longer manufactures the signals but has continued to supply parts for them.

3M's Mincom division introduced several models of magnetic tape recorders for instrumentation use and for studio sound recording. An example of the latter is the model M79 recorder , which still has a following in recording circles today. 3M Mincom was also involved in designing and manufacturing video production equipment for the television and video post-production industries in the 1970s and 1980s, with such items as character generators and several different models of video switchers, from models of audio and video routers to video mixers for studio production work.

3M Mincom was involved in some of the first digital audio recordings of the late 1970s to see commercial release when a prototype machine was brought to the Sound 80 studios in Minneapolis. After drawing on the experience of that prototype recorder, 3M later introduced in 1979 a commercially available digital audio recording system called the "3M Digital Audio Mastering System" [7], which consisted of a 32-track digital audio tape recorder and a companion 4-track digital recorder for final mastering. 3M later designed and manufactured several other commercially available models of digital audio recorders used throughout the early to mid-1980s.

In 1980 the company introduced Post-it notes. In 1996, the company's data storage and imaging divisions were spun off as the Imation Corporation. Imation has since sold its imaging and photographic film businesses to concentrate on storage.

Today 3M is one of the 30 companies included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average (added on August 9, 1976), and is ranked number 101 on the As of 2006[update] Fortune 500 listing. The company has 132 plants and over 67,000 employees worldwide, with sales offices in over 200 countries. The vast majority of the company's employees are local nationals, with few employees residing outside their home country. Its worldwide sales are over $20 billion, with international sales 58% of that total.

On December 20, 2005, 3M announced a major partnership with Roush-Fenway Racing, one of NASCAR's premier organizations. In 2008 the company will sponsor Greg Biffle in the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series as he drives the #16 Ford Fusion. In addition, on February 19, 2006, 3M announced that it would become the title sponsor of the 3M Performance 400 at Michigan International Speedway for at least the next three years.

On April 4, 2006, 3M announced its intention to sell pharmaceutical non-core business. The pharmaceuticals businesses were sold off in three deals, in Europe, the Americas, and the rest of the world. Another division of the Health Care business, Drug Delivery Systems remains with 3M. The Drug Delivery System division continues to contract manufacture inhalants and transdermal drug delivery systems and has now taken on manufacture of the products whose licenses were sold during the divestiture of the pharmaceuticals business. On September 8], 2008, 3M announced an agreement to acquire Meguiar's, a car care products company that was family-owned for over a century.

Today, after 100 years, 3M follows a business model based on “the ability to not only develop unique products, but also to manufacture them efficiently and consistently around the world (3M).


Environmental record
The Target Light System, built by 3M.In 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency‎ (EPA) began investigating perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) after receiving data on the global distribution and toxicity of PFOS, the former key ingredient in Scotchgard. For these reasons, 3M, the former primary American producer of PFOS, announced in May 2000, the phaseout of the production of PFOS, PFOA, and PFOS-related products.The PFCs that were produced were related to non-stick cookware, stain resistant fabrics, and other similar products. The PFCs were also released into the immediate environment surrounding the Cottage Grove facility starting in the 1940s and lasting until 2002.[12] In response to PFC contamination of the Mississippi River and surrounding area, 3M states that the area will be "cleaned though a combination of groundwater pumpout wells and soil sediment excavation."The plan for the restoration of the area includes a complete analysis of the entire company property and surrounding lands. The on-site water treatment facility that handles the plant's post-production water is not capable of removing the PFCs, which were pumped into the nearby Mississippi River. Estimates on the total cost of the clean-up to be incurred by 3M range from 50-56 million dollars, which will come out of the $147 million pot the company set aside in 2006 to deal with environmental issues relating to the company. The search area for PFCs in the Mississippi River now extends to five states, spanning approximately half of the river's total distance. Perfluorochemicals do not break down or degrade in the environment.

In 2002 3M rated as number 70 out of the United States 100 top air polluters on the PERI Toxic 100 list, producing 4.75 million pounds of air pollutants every year.The Cottage Grove site represents 3M's third highest pollutant producing facility, releasing 244,715 lb (111,001 kg). of pollution into the air yearly.

In 2008, it has created the 3M Renewable Energy Division within 3M’s Industrial and Transportation Business and will focus on Energy Generation and Energy Management .

 Operating facilities
3M’s general offices, corporate research laboratories, and certain division laboratories are located in St. Paul, Minnesota. In the United States, 3M has nine sales offices in eight states and operates 74 manufacturing facilities in 27 states. Internationally, 3M has 148 sales offices. The Company operates 93 manufacturing and converting facilities in 32 countries outside the United States.

3M owns substantially all of its physical properties. 3M’s physical facilities are highly suitable for the purposes for which they were designed. Because 3M is a global enterprise characterized by substantial intersegment cooperation, properties are often used by multiple business segments.

Selected factory detail information:

Cynthiana, Kentucky, USA factory producing 650 - 700 trailers of Post-It notes (672 SKU) and scotch tape (147 SKU). It has 539 employees and was established in 1969.[22] It still accounts for nearly all of the world's production.
Newton Aycliffe, County Durham, UK factory producing respirators for workers safety, using laser technology. It has 370 employees and recently there was an investment of £4,5 million ($9 million).

what is NEC

NEC Corporation (日本電気株式会社 ,Nippon Denki Kabushiki Gaisha?, TYO: 6701) is a Japanese multinational IT company headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. NEC, part of the Sumitomo Group, provides information technology (IT) and network solutions to business enterprises, communications services providers and government.

The company was formerly known as Nippon Electric Company, Limited, before it was renamed in 1983. It still goes by the full name in Japan. As a chip maker, NEC Semiconductors is among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders.

Early development

Company formation
Nippon Electric Limited Partnership was established in August 31, 1898 by Kunihiko Iwadare and Takeshiro Maeda using facilities that they had bought from Miyoshi Electrical Manufacturing Company. Iwadare was the representative partner. Maeda handled company sales. Western Electric, who had an interest in the Japanese phone market, was represented by Walter Tenney Carleton. Carleton was also responsible for the renovation of the Miyoshi facilities. It was agreed that the partnership would be reorganized as a joint-stock company when treaty would allow it. On July 17, 1899 the revised treaty between Japan and the United States went into effect. Nippon Electric Company, Limited was organized the same day with Western Electric Company to become the first Japanese joint venture with foreign capital. Iwadare was named managing director. Ernest Clement and Carleton were named as directors. Maeda and Mototeru Fujii were assigned to be auditors. The overall management was handled by Iwadare, Maeda and Carleton.

Early production
They started with the production, sales and maintenance of telephones and switches. NEC modernized the production facilities with the construction of the Mita Plant in 1901 at Mita Shikokumachi. It was completed in December 1902.

The Ministry of Communications also adopted a new technology in 1903. It was the common battery switchboard supplied by NEC. The common battery switchboards powered the subscriber phone, eliminating the need for a permanent magnet generator in each subscriber's phone. The switchboards were initially imported, but were manufactured locally by 1909.

NEC started exporting telephone sets to China in 1904.


Changes in management
In 1905, Iwadare set out to change the plant management policy. He visited Western Electric to see their management and production control. On his return to Japan he discontinued the "oyakata" system of sub contracting. It was replaced by a new system where managers and employees were all direct employees of the company. Inefficiency was also removed from the production process. The company paid higher salaries with incentives for efficiency. New accounting and cost controls were put in place. Time clocks were installed.

Expansion of the Japanese telephone service
Between 1899 and 1907, the number of telephone subscribers in Japan rose from 35,000 to 95,000. NEC entered the China market in 1908 with the implementation of the telegraph treaty between Japan and China. They also entered the Korean market, setting up an office in Seoul in January 1908. During the period of 1907 to 1912 sales rose from 1.6 million yen to 2 million yen. The expansion of the Japanese phone service had been a key part of NEC's success during this period. This expansion was about to take a pause.

The Ministry of Communications delayed a third expansion plan of the phone service in March, 1913. This was despite there being 120,000 potential telephone subscribers waiting for phone installations. NEC Sales fell sixty percent between 1912 and 1915. During the interim, Iwadare started importing appliances including electric fans, kitchen appliances, washing machines and vacuum cleaners. Electric fans had never been seen in Japan before. The imports were intended to prop up company sales. In 1916, the government resumed the delayed telephone expansion plan, adding 75,000 subscribers and 32,6000 kilometers of new toll lines. Thanks to this third expansion plan, NEC expanded at a time when the rest of Japanese industry was mostly in decline.

Association with Sumitomo
In 1919, NEC started its first association with Sumitomo. Sumitomo Densen Seizosho was engaged to manufacture cables. As part of the venture, NEC provided cable manufacturing equipment to Sumitomo Densen. Rights to Western Electrics duplex cable patents were also transferred to Sumitomo Densen

Radio broadcast
NEC started their radio communications business in 1924. Japan's first radio broadcaster, Radio Tokyo was founded in 1924 and started broadcasting in 1925. NEC imported the broadcasting equipment from Western Electric. The expansion of radio broadcasting into Osaka and Nagoya marked the emergence of radio as an Industry. NEC established a radio research unit 1924. NEC started developing electron tubes in 1925. By 1930, they were manufacturing their first 500 W radio transmitter. They provided the Chinese Xinjing station with a 100 kW radio broadcasting system in 1934.

Photo-telegraphic equipment
Photo-telegraphic equipment was developed by NEC that was used to transmit photos of the accession ceremony of Emperor Hirohito. The ceremony was held in Kyoto in 1928. The Newspapers Asahi Shimbun and Mainichi Shimbun were competing to cover the ceremony. The Asahi Shimbun was using a Siemens device. The Mainichi was planning to use French photo-telegraphic equipment. In the end, both papers acquired and used the NEC product, due to its faster transmission rate and higher picture quality.

Carrier transmission equipment
In 1929 Nippon Electric provided Japan's Ministry of Communications with the A-type switching system. It was the first of these systems to be developed in Japan. Nippon supplied Japan's Ministry of Communications with nonloaded line carrier equipment for long distance telephone channels in 1937.

Microwave research
In 1939, Nippon Electric established a research laboratory in the Tamagawa plant. They became the first Japanese company to successfully test microwave multiplex communications.

World War II
World War II has been described as being the company's blackest days (NEC 1984, p. 31). In 1938 the Mita and Tamagawa plants were placed under military control, with direct supervision by military officers. On December 22, 1941, the enemy property control law was passed. NEC shares owned by International Standard Electric Corporation (ISE), an ITT subsidiary and Western Electric affiliate were seized. Capital and technical relations were abruptly severed. The "Munitions Company Law" was passed in October 1943, placing overall control of NEC plants under military jurisdiction. The Ueno plant was leveled by military attack in March 1945. Fire bombings in April and May heavily damaged the Tamagawa Plant, reducing its capacity by forty percent. The Okayama Plant was totally destroyed by a bombing attack in June of the same year. At the end of the war, NEC’s production had been substantially reduced by damage to its facilities, and by material and personnel shortages. After the war, production was slowly returned to civilian use. NEC re-opened its major plants by the end of January 1946.


Domestic growth
NEC began transistor research and development in 1950. They started exporting radio broadcast equipment to Korea under the first major postwar contract in 1951. NEC received the Deming prize for excellence in quality control in 1952. Computer research and development began in 1954. NEC produced the first crossbar switching system in Japan. It was installed at Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) in 1956. NEC began joint research and development with NTT of electronic switching systems the same year. NEC established Taiwan Telecommunication Company as their first postwar overseas joint venture in 1958. They completed the NEAC-1101 and NEAC-1102 computers the same year. In 1959 NEC demonstrated their first transistorized computer, the NEAC-2201. They demonstrated it at the UNESCO AUTOMATH show in Paris. The company began integrated circuit research and development in 1960. In 1963 NEC started trading as American Depositary Receipts, ten million being sold in the United States. Nippon Electric New York (now NEC America Inc.) was incorporated in the same year.

Global expansion
NEC supplied KDD with submarine cable systems to be laid in the Pacific Ocean in 1964. They supplied short haul 24 channel PCM carrier transmission equipment to NTT in 1965. NEC de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., NEC do Brasil, S. A., NEC Australia Pty. Ltd. were established between 1968 and 1969. NEC supplied Comsat Corporation with the SPADE satellite communications system in 1971. In 1972, Switzerland ordered a NEC satellite communications earth station. The same year, a small transportable satellite communications earth station was set up in China. Shares of NEC common stock were listed on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange in 1973. NEC also designed an automated broadcasting system for the Japan Broadcasting Corporation the same year. NEC Electronics (Europe) GmbH was also established. In 1974, the ACOS series computer was introduced. The New Central Research Laboratories were completed in 1975. In 1977, Japan's National Space Development Agency launched the NEC geostationary meteorological satellite, named Himawari.

C&C era begins
During this period NEC introduced the concept of C&C, the integration of Computers and Communications. NEC America Inc. opened a plant in Dallas, Texas to manufacture PABX and telephone systems in 1978. They also acquired Electronic Arrays, Inc. of California the same year to start semiconductor chip production in the United States. In 1980, NEC created the first digital signal processor, the NEC µPD7710. NEC Semiconductors (UK) Ltd. was established in 1981, producing VLSIs and LSIs. NEC introduced the 16-bit PC-8800 series personal computer in 1982. In 1983 NEC stock was listed on the Basel, Geneva and Zurich, Switzerland exchanges. NEC changed its English company name to NEC Corporation the same year. NEC Information Systems, Inc. started manufacturing computers and related products in the United States in 1984. NEC also released the V-series processor the same year. In 1986, NEC delivered its SX-2 super computer to the Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, Tx. In the same year, the NEAX61 digital switching system went in to service. In 1987, NEC Technologies (UK) Ltd. was established in the United Kingdom to manufacture VCRs, printers and color TVs for Europe. Also that year, NEC licensed technology from Hudson Soft, a video game manufacturer, to create a video game console called the PC-Engine (later released in 1989 as the TurboGrafx-16 in the North American market). Its successor, the PC-FX, was released in Japan in 1994. NEC USA, Inc. was established in 1989 as a holding company for North American operations.


C&C for human potential
In 1990, the new head office building known as the "Super Tower" was completed. Additionally, joint venture agreements were established to manufacture and market digital electronic switching systems and LSIs in China. In 1993 NEC's asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switching system, the NEAX61 (Nippon Electronic Automatic Exchange) ATM Service Node, went into service in the United States. NEC Europe, Ltd. was established as a holding company for European operations the same year. The NEC C&C Research Laboratories, NEC Europe, Ltd. were opened in Germany in 1994. NEC (China) Co, Ltd. was established as a holding company for Chinese operations in 1996. In 1997 NEC developed 4Gbit DRAM, and their semiconductor group was honored with one of the first Japan Quality Awards. In 1998, NEC opened the world's most advanced semiconductor R&D facility.

A new century
NEC celebrated their 100th anniversary in 1999. NEC Electronics Corporation was separated from NEC in 2002 as a new semiconductor company. NEC Laboratories America, Inc. (NEC Labs) was created in November, 2002 as a merger of NEC Research Institute (NECI) and NEC USA’s Computer and Communications Research Laboratory (CCRL). NEC built the Earth Simulator Computer (ESC), the fastest supercomputer in the world from 2002 to 2004, and since produced the NEC N343i in 2006.

In 2007, NEC and Nissan Co. Corp. are considering a joint venture to produce lithium ion batteries for hybrid cars

Company structure
NEC Super Tower, headquarters of NEC Corporation, in Minato, Tokyo, JapanNEC's business is divided into the three principal segments: IT Solutions, Network Solutions and Electronic Devices.

The IT Solutions business delivers computing solutions to business enterprises, government and individual customers in the form of software, hardware and related services.

The Network Solutions business designs and provides broadband network systems, mobile and wireless communications network systems, mobile handsets, broadcast and other systems.

NEC's Electronic Devices business includes semiconductors, displays and other electronic components. NEC produces Versa notebooks for the international market and the Lavie series for Japanese market.

NEC Corporation of America
NEC Display Solutions of America Inc.
NEC Electronics America

NEC MobilePro - a handheld computer running Windows CE
NEC Aspire hybrid small business phone system
Electric vehicle batteries.
NEC mobile phone
NEC America MultiSync Monitors and Fax devices
NEC Information Systems, Inc. LaVie / NEC VERSA notebook
NEC Information Systems, Inc. POWERMATE desktop PC
NEC Information Systems, Inc. Valuestar / NEC POWERMATE hybrid PC
NEC (Division unknown) Car Stereos and Keyless Entry Systems

Achievements of NEC include the discovery of single-walled carbon nanotubes by Sumio Iijima, the creation of the Earth Simulator, the fastest supercomputer in the world at the time, the invention of the widely used MUX-scan design-for-test methodology (contrast with the IBM-developed LSSD-scan methodology), and the world's first demonstration of the one-qubit rotation gate in solid state devices. Over the past five years NEC has ranked consistently in the top 4 companies for number of U.S. patents issued, averaging 1764 granted each year.

1983 Announced the SX-1 and SX-2 supercomputers
1989 Introduction of SX-3
1994 First announcement of SX-4
1999 Delivery of SX-5
2002 Introduced SX-6
2002 Installation of the Earth Simulator, the world's fastest supercomputer from 2002 to 2004 reaching a speed of 35,600 gigaflops
2005 NEC SX-8 in production
2006 Announced the SX-8R
2007 Announced the SX-9

NEC sponsored the English football club Everton from 1985 to 1995. During NEC's sponsorship, Everton enjoyed mixed fortunes. In their first season, Everton were runners-up to Liverpool in both the Football League First Division and the FA Cup, however they became Football League champions in 1987, FA Cup runners-up in 1989 and FA Cup winners in 1995. The 1995 FA Cup triumph was Everton's final game of the decade-long NEC sponsorship, and Danka took over as their sponsors.

NEC also sponsor the Harlequin RUFC and RLFC rugby teams from London, as well as the Edinburgh International Film Festival.

 NEC's own teams
These started as works teams, but over the years professional players were hired.

NEC Blue Rockets (men's volleyball)
NEC Red Rockets (women's volleyball)
NEC Green Rockets (men's rugby union)
NEC also used to own Montedio Yamagata of the football (soccer) J. League, but nowadays just sponsors them along with other local companies.

what is Konica Minolta

Konica Minolta Danka Imaging is a St. Petersburg, Florida based North American independent provider of copiers, printers, fax machines and other office imaging and document management equipment.

Founded in 1977 by Dan Doyle, in the 1990s Danka acquired Infotec and then Kodak Office Imaging , making the renamed Danka Group an international company and brand with offices and retail outlets in the United States and throughout Europe, which included sponsorship of the English football club Everton from 1995 to 1997 and British based Formula 1 team Arrows in 1997 and 1998. Danka sold its European operations to Ricoh in 2006/2007, along with the Infotec brand under which the European offices are now rebranded. On June 27, 2008, Konica-Minolta completed its acquisition of Danka, and the new company will be known as Konica Minolta Danka Imaging. As of June 27, 2008, Danka is no longer an authorized dealer of Canon or Toshiba products.

what is Konica

Konica (コニカ ,Konika?) was a Japanese manufacturer of, among other products, film, film cameras, camera accessories, photographic and photo-processing equipment, photocopiers, fax machines and laser printers


The company traces its history back to 1873 (pre-dating Kodak in the photography business) when pharmacist Rokusaburo Sugiura began selling photographic materials at his store in Konishiya Rokubē, the biggest pharmacy trader in Tokyo at that time[1].

In 1878, Rokusaburō succeeded to his family and renamed Rokuemon VI (Rokudaime Rokuemon). He gave the original shop to his younger brother and launched a new shop, Konishi Honten (Konishi Main Shop) in the Nihonbashi district of Tokyo.

In 1882, Konishi launched a project to produce photography related materials in Japan: those products were imported at that time. In 1902, Konishi began to sell the "Cherry Portable Camera" (チェリー手提用暗函), the first Japanese produced end-user oriented camera. New products were released respectively, and Konishi Main Shop became the leading camera company in Japan. In 1921, old Konishi had his elder son succeed to the family and thus company head with the name, and in this occasion Konishi Honten was turned into a company Konishiroku Honten. The name Konishiroku was taken from the abbreviation of their names, Konishi Rokuemon.

Konishiroku released their "Konica I" type camera in 1948, after which they would name their own company in 1987.

On August 5, 2003, Konica merged with Minolta to form Konica Minolta. In March 2006, the merged company closed down its photo imaging division, which produced color film, color paper, photo chemicals and digital minilab machines. Its digital SLR camera section was transferred to Sony. Dai Nippon purchased Konica's Odawara factory site and continues to produce paper under its own brand, while Seapac acquired the Konica chemical factory.


what is Fuji Xerox

Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd. (富士ゼロックス株式会社 ,Fuji Zerokkusu Kabushiki-gaisha?) is a joint venture partnership between the Japanese photographic firm Fuji Photo Film Co. (75%) and the American document management company Xerox (25%) to develop, produce and sell xerographic and document-related products and services in the Asia-Pacific region.

Fuji Xerox was established in 1962 as a 50:50 partnership with Rank Xerox. Rank Xerox was absorbed into Xerox Corporation in 1997.

Originally only a distributor of Rank Xerox products, Fuji Xerox later began to research and develop its own xerographic machines and other devices, beginning with the 2200 photocopier in 1973. Today the company is responsible for the innovation and manufacture of many of the colour printing devices sold by Xerox Corporation. Its innovations include the world's first multifunction printer/copier, the "Xero Printer 100", launched in 1987.

In 1991, Fuji Xerox introduced the tag-line "The Document Company" which became incorporated into its logo in 1995. This is feature of the logo to this day, although Xerox Corporation discontinued its use in 2004.

Xerox Corporation transferred its China/Hong Kong Operations to Fuji Xerox in 2000 and Fuji Photo Film Co. raised its stake in the venture to 75% in 2001.

In 2004, the company employed 36,000 people.

Effective April 1, 2008, Fuji Xerox will start changing their logo on communication materials including its official Web site, business cards, and key signage in order of priority, covering all Fuji Xerox companies in Japan as well as the Asia-Pacific region. This is the first corporate identity change in 13 years.